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George Washington at the point. Where's The Sizzle?  A Stan Klos Company

Where’s the Sizzle?
A Patriot Walk Of Glory
By: Stan Klos

Click Here to visit the Fort Pitt Museum

 

 

The new convention center, ballparks, and the many entrepreneurial efforts of revitalization in Pittsburgh are all components that streak a bleak economic sky with a multitude of silver linings.  

 

Most fiscally astute people maintain that Pittsburgh is in trouble, serious trouble. Clearly, Pittsburgh is struggling, with Allegheny County ranking third in population loss in the last decade – 9.6%.  Faced with 342,243 less people from the baby boom of the 1950's (1950 - 676,806 down to 334,563 in 2000) Pittsburgh’s seemingly impossible challenge is to keep its infrastructure of roads, bridges, sewer, public water system, along with its parks, schools, public buildings and a whole host of other services humming along. The problem is that such services were planned to be supported by 700,000 citizens. With less then 334,000 taxpayers to carry the burdens of an aging infrastructure, it is no wonder our elected officials felt compelled to announce in November 2003 that they are seeking “distressed status” for the city of Pittsburgh to avoid filing for bankruptcy.

As a native New Yorker, who married a Pittsburgh Lady and is raising eight children in Allegheny County, I feel compelled, at the very least, to suggest a direction for the town fathers:

 

Embrace and Broadcast the life of Young George Washington.

 

Yes, the Father of Our Country, George Washington got his historic start in Pittsburgh!

 

In October 1753 Governor Robert Dinwiddie of Virginia sent young George Washington to what was then Western Virginia to warn the French to stay out of the Alleghenies.  He kept a detailed diary and on November 24th, 250 years ago, Washington reached the Point and wrote:

As I got down before the Canoe, I spent some Time in viewing the Rivers, and the Land in the Fork; which I think extremely well situated for a Fort, as it has the absolute Command of both Rivers. The Land at the Point is 20 or 25 Feet above the common Surface of the Water; and a considerable Bottom of flat, well-timbered Land all around it, very convenient for Building: The Rivers are each a Quarter of a Mile, or more, across, and run here very near at right Angles: Aligany bearing N. E. and Monongahela S. E. The former of these two is a very rapid and swift running Water; the other deep and still, without any perceptible fall.

Washington continued his mission to reach the French Commander Legardeur de Saint Pierre who was headquartered in Erie. The young lieutenant arrived at Fort Presque Isle on December 11th requesting of the French Commander "by what Authority he had made Prisoners of several of our English Subjects," Pierre replied "that the Country belonged to them; that no Englishman had a Right to trade upon those Waters; and that he had Orders to make every Person Prisoner who attempted it on the Ohio, or the Waters of it." The French Commander’s formal letter to the Governor of Virginia was delivered by Washington in Williamsburg on January 16, 1754 and it was equally as firm.

 

The arduous expedition and detailed diary led to Washington’s promotion to Colonel and an outfitting of men to re-claim The Point for Virginia, King and Country. The French, wasting no time in Washington’s five month absence built Fort Duquesne in less than four months.  It was on May 28th, 1754 at Jumonville Glen that Washington launched his almost miraculous military career by intercepting a small French encampment detached from Fort Duquesne to scout for British resistance.  Washington, instead of parlaying, fired the first shot, captured the detachments and this act was the final spark that ignited the French and Indian War in America.  George Washington’s military career was born on this spring day in May.

 

Young George Washington’s courage and military ability were to be tested several more times in the course of what became commonly known as the French and Indian War.  After his altercation at Jumonville Glen Washington retreated east and hastily constructed Fort Necessity to prepare for the imminent French retaliation from Fort Duquesne. The French arrived at Great Meadows in late June and by July 3rd Washington had no other option but to accept the terms of surrender permitting him and the garrison to "retire into his own country." Shortage of supplies, ammunition, lack of men and a poorly designed fort had led to the first defeat of Washington's career despite a valiant defense.

 

In February 1755, a new British Campaign headed by Major General Edward Braddock left Alexandria, Virginia for The Point.  Young George Washington was sought out by the British Commander and became the only colonial officer admitted to the prestigious general staff. Their mission and the British mind-set was best summed-up by Braddock:


"After taking Fort Duquesne," said the general, "I am to proceed to Niagara; and, having taken that, to Frontenac if the season will allow time, and I suppose it will, for Duquesne can hardly detain me above three or four days; and then I can see nothing that can obstruct my march to Niagara."   


The expedition made slow progress, but at last drew near the fort, and crossed the Monongahela where General Braddock and his 2400 British regulars were surprised by a force of 900 French and Native Americans. Most of Braddock’s troop’s panicked and over 1200 men were killed or seriously wounded. Of Braddock's staff, only Colonel Washington was alive, relatively well, and managed to lead the surviving troops to safety. Braddock, himself, was mortally shot through the arm and into his chest. He died during the British retreat to eastern Virginia. General Braddock was buried in the middle of the road near Fort Necessity to avoid his body's detection by the Indians.

 

In the autumn of 1758 British Brigadier General John Forbes was placed in command of the expedition against Fort Duquesne.  The Forbes Campaign numbered 1,200 highlanders, 350 royal Americans, and about 5,000 provincials, including about 1,000 Virginians under the command of Colonel George Washington.   The expedition took a new route through Western Pennsylvania that was uneventful except for Forbes taking ill and Washington almost being killed by friendly fire at Fort Ligonier.  Passing the field where the bones of Braddock's men lay unburied, the expedition finally reached Fort, Duquesne on November 25th.  The Fort had been blown up and abandoned by the French on the previous day.  Washington's men took possession of the Point and the Virginia Colonel personally raised the British Flag over the Three Rivers thus ending his military campaign began 5 years earlier. Forbes renamed The Point Fort Pitt, in honor of William Pitt, who had planned the campaign. After concluding treaties with the Native American Tribes on the Ohio, Forbes and Washington returned to Philadelphia.

 

It was the campaigns against Fort Duquesne that honed Washington’s military instincts, and taught him the methods of British and French Tactical Warfare. These campaigns also established Washington’s reputation as a war hero throughout the colonies and Great Britain.  

 

By the reign of the King George III the war was all but won but the cost in gold and wealth to the treasury crippled the British Empire. In an attempt to recover the war losses the British levied taxes on the 13 colonies but quickly learned its colonial citizens, who were now battle harden patriots, believed they earned the right to govern and tax their own holdings in North America. Ultimately it was the French and Indian War campaign experiences, physical forts, and bountiful British arms that enabled the colonists to successfully oppose Britain’s taxes and wage a revolution against England from 1775 to 1783.  It was also the French and Indian War campaigns against Fort Duquesne that fashioned a hardened commander-in-chief aspirant who understood how supply, equip and lead an army against British Regulars.   The Continental Congress' selection of George Washington on July 3, 1775 as Commander-in-Chief was primarily due to Virginia connections, military experience and training that all stemmed from his campaigns against Fort Duquesne.

 

***** It was The Point that launched Washington’s destiny and the subsequent chain of events that won our Independence from Great Britain.  Consequently, Pittsburgh’s historians can make a creditable case that Pittsburgh is the commencement of George Washington’s March to Independence. ****** 


Last Fall I made this case to Chuck Smith, Director of the Fort Pitt Museum and Martin West, Director of Fort Ligonier at a small Chinese restaurant in Ligonier.  It was like preaching to the choir.  What the choir didn’t know, however, was that the auto-biographical account by Washington, in his own hand, against the French at The Point was being auctioned off at Christies in New York City later that month.  With lightening speed they contacted Laura Fisher of the War for Empire Consortium and upon her bidding we constructed a simple paragraph on why Western Pennsylvania must acquire this autobiography for their archives. Simply stated we concurred that:

 

 “Washington’s 11 page handwritten Autobiography, covering his campaigns against Fort Duquesne, is the most important and significant single artifact in Western Pennsylvania History”.

 

Laura Fisher, with almost unheard of speed raised the necessary capital through the War for Empire Consortium and with the help of two equally driven manuscript dealers purchased Washington’s 11 page handwritten auto-biography from the Malcolm Forbes’ Christies Auction.

 

Despite the local and national monumental importance of this autobiography I have tossed and turned for months knowing the acquisition required sizzle to gain both the local and national prominence it so richly deserves.   Like Pittsburgh’s quality of life, the beef is there to the nth degree but virtually no one knows that Our Nation and Washington’s road to Independence began at The Point.  What we need, I proclaimed to all that would listen these past months is an attraction so monumental that the sizzle will enable Pittsburgh to broadcast young Washington’s exploits in such a manner that it will capture “International Sound bite Spotlight”. 

 

At first I envision monuments on the scale of St. Louis’s Archway but as I analyzed our city budgets and congressional clout it became clear we needed a venue simple but bold, affordable but irreplaceable and most importantly one that mirrors the true character of Pittsburghers and their Founding Father George Washington.

 

It came to me one night as I flicked through the channels and viewed another ho hum epideictic celebrity blubbering over their newly unveiled star in Hollywood between clips of another awards banquet. I reasoned, why not take a page out of Hollywood's book of sound bite glamour spin and create a “Walk of Fame” around The Point?  Yes the walk could use Stars, perhaps Comets, or even the Great Seal to mark the honorees.   Personally, I envision the Patriot's names marked by Old Glory on a Patriot Walk of Glory

 

The point is (no pun intended) that we use sensational sound bite publicity to immortalize The Point’s significance in shaping our nation’s history. By establishing a Patriot Walk of Glory honoring   history’s true stars from young George Washington to Neil Armstrong, Pittsburgh opens-up all kind of doors for meaningful publicity and visitors eager to experience the Patriot Walk of Glory venue. To start off, the Patriot Walk of Glory can begin with setting a plaque for Young George Washington on the 250th anniversary of his visit on November 24th. On a regular basis the walk can be filled with American Patriots from the 18th and 19th Centuries requesting appropriate relatives, historical societies, museums etc … to accept the honors bestowed on these great men and women posthumously. 

 

Once this “dead”, albeit extremely important, section is completed, the public relations excitement begins with the addition of living Patriots.  History’s living heroes and heroines come not to Hollywood Boulevard to unveil stars but to The Point to mark their accomplishments along side George Washington marked by Old Glory. Due to the significance of the honorees,  it is essential that the Patriot Walk of Glory be designed and hallowed in such a manner that living Patriots will feel compelled to come to their “Old Glory” unveiling.  

 

This Patriot Walk of Glory, by its very nature will provide an interpretive trail mapping not just Pittsburgh but our nation's history that will last the ages. Additionally, The Point would become a venue to support a variety of public exhibits.  The Point’s Patriot Walk of Glory would shine a bright national spotlight on the accomplishments of American Pioneers such as Madeline Albright or Rosa Parks. Perhaps the public might surprise us (as they often do) and such honorees would gain more attention than the Hollywood Star unveilings of entertainers like Madonna or George Clooney.  Wouldn't it be prudent to positively focus National Attention on Great American Patriots two or three times a year at The Point where it all began for young George Washington?    

 

In addition to the Patriot Walk of Glory the city or local benefactors should find the funds to re-construct Fort Duquesne (the French did it in 4 months with a small contingent of men in 1754), which would become an instant international attraction being French.  Imagine the controversy that would be started over a Fort Duquesne in the heart of Fort Pitt filled with French soldiers awaiting the arrival of young George Washington and British regulars.  Physically it also makes sense as Fort Duquesne is much smaller to re-construct than Fort Pitt, made of wood, and can fit easily on the open ground already existing in the park unlike the massive Fort Pitt that once expanded past the bridge’s maze of connecting arteries.  Historically, Fort Duquesne is more significant then Fort Pitt as it was the venue that defied Britain’s rights to the headwaters of the Ohio while claiming the Northwest Territory for France.

 

I say let Hollywood and Cleveland have their Movie Star Walk and Rock & Roll Hall of Fame. Pittsburgh's Patriot Walk of Glory around The Point surrounding a re-constructed Fort Duquesne will appropriately honor men and women who forged our great history starting with the Father of our Country.  The Patriot Walk of Glory and re-constructed Fort will provide George Washington’s 11 page auto-biography and Pittsburgh the SIZZLE necessary to turn-on that International Spotlight and attract international visitors. Once the focus shifts, people will be in awe of Pittsburgh’s culture centers, magnificent ballparks, our Green Convention Center and the quality of life second to none in the United States. Pittsburgh will become a destination city not only for fellow Americans but for British and French citizens who wish to inspect our “frontier” interpretation of the Great War for Empire in North America.

 

It is time for a new vision for Andrew Carnegie’s Steel Town and it just so happens that the settlement belonged to George Washington all along. It’s time to commemorate  The U.S. Road to Independence Beginning at The Point which one can unmistakably witness by reading George’s handwritten autobiography. 

 

Fort Duquesne
Click Here to visit the Museum

 

BY: Hubert H. Bancroft

A PARTY of Captain Trent's men had gone to the Ohio, and begun to build a fort. Just before Colonel Washington reached Will's Creek, a rumor came from the interior that these men were taken by the French; and two days afterwards the alarming intelligence was confirmed by the ensign of Captain Trent's company. He reported that, while they were at work, forty-one in number, a body of French troops descended the river from Venango, consisting of one thousand men, with eighteen pieces of cannon, sixty bateaux, and three hundred canoes, under the command of Captain Contrecoeur, and summoned them to surrender, threatening to take forcible possession of the fort if this summons were not immediately obeyed. No alternative remained, and, the captain and lieutenant being absent, Ensign Ward acceded to articles of capitulation, and gave up the fort, but was permitted to retire with his men. He came to Will's Creek, and brought the news of the disaster. His statement, however, as to the numbers of the French, their cannon and boats, turned out to be very much exaggerated. This was the first open act of hostility in the memorable war of seven years that followed. The French enlarged and completed the fort, which they called Fort Duquesne, in compliment to the governor of Canada.

The position of Colonel Washington was now a somewhat critical one. His small force of ill-disciplined recruits might easily be surrounded and cut off. But he determined to advance, to construct a road as he did so, and, if he could reach the Monongahela, to build a fort at the mouth of Redstone Creek. The progress was a slow one. Great difficulties had to be overcome, and provisions grew scarce. Washington attempted to find a passage by water down the Youghiogheny, but failed, from obstructions in the river. On his return he received word from the Half-King, a friendly sachem, that a party of French were marching towards him, determined to attack the first English they should meet.

Not knowing their number, or at what moment they might approach, he hastened to a place called the Great Meadows, cleared away the bushes, threw up an entrenchment, and prepared, as he expressed it, "a charming field for an encounter." He then mounted some of the soldiers on wagon-horses, and sent them out to reconnoiter. They came back without having seen any traces of the enemy; but the camp was alarmed in the night, the sentries fired, and all hands were kept under arms till morning. Mr. Gist came to the camp, also, and reported that a French detachment, consisting of fifty men, had been at his settlement the day before, and that he had observed their tracks within five miles of the Great Meadows.

The approach of the French with hostile designs was now deemed certain; and the best preparation was made to receive them which circumstances would permit. In the mean time, about nine o'clock at night, another express came from the Half-King, who was then with a party of his warriors about six miles from the camp, stating that he had seen the tracks of two Frenchmen, and that the whole detachment was near that place. Colonel Washington immediately put himself at the head of forty men, leaving the rest to guard the camp, and set off to join the Half-King. The night was dark, the rain fell in torrents, the paths through the woods were narrow and intricate, and the soldiers often lost their way, groping in the bushes, and clambering over rocks and fallen trees.

The whole night was spent in the march, and they got to the Indian encampment just before sunrise. A council was held with Tanacharison [the Half-King] and his chief warriors, and it was agreed that they should march in concert against the French. Two Indians went out to ascertain the position of the enemy, which was discovered to be in an obscure retreat, surrounded by rocks, half a mile from the road. The plan of attack was then formed. Colonel Washington and his men were to advance on the right, and the Indians on the left. The march was pursued in single file, according to the Indian manner, till they came so near as to be discovered by the French, who instantly seized their arms and put themselves in an attitude of defense.

At this moment the firing commenced on both sides. A smart skirmish ensued, which was kept up for a quarter of an hour, when the French ceased to resist. M. de Jumonville, the commander of the French party, and ten of his men, were killed. Twenty-two were taken prisoners, one of whom was wounded. A Canadian made his escape during the action. One of Colonel Washington's men was killed, and two or three wounded. No harm happened to the Indians, as the enemy's fire was directed chiefly against the English. This event occurred on the 28th of May. The prisoners were conducted to the Great Meadows, and thence, under a guard, to Governor Dinwiddie.

This action, the opening conflict of arms in the war, acquired a notoriety far beyond its importance. When the news of the event reached Paris it was greatly misrepresented. Jumonville was considered a messenger bearing a civil summons, who had been waylaid and assassinated; and an able French poet, named Thomas, made it the foundation of an epic poem entitled "Jumonville," and his fiction has become to some extent the fact of modern French historians. Jumonville did bear a summons, but it was an order for the English to retire, with a threat of compulsion if they failed to obey. This summons he did not show, but approached the English camp stealthily, and brought on himself, by his imprudence, the fate which he experienced.

Some reinforcements soon after reached Virginia, consisting of three hundred and fifty men from North Carolina, one hundred from South Carolina, and two companies from New York. Of these only those from South Carolina arrived at Great Meadows.

It was foreseen by Colonel Washington that when the French at Fort Duquesne should get the news of Jumonville's defeat a strong detachment would be sent out against him. As a preparation for this event, he set all his men at work to enlarge the entrenchment at the Great Meadows, and to erect palisades. To the structure thus hastily thrown up he gave the name of Fort Necessity.

The Indians, who leaned to the English interest, fled before the French and flocked to the camp, bringing along their wives and children and putting them under his protection. Among them came Tanacharison and his people, Queen Aliquippa and her son, and other persons of distinction, till between forty and fifty families gathered around him and laid his magazine of supplies under a heavy contribution. It may be said, once for all, that the burden of supporting these sons of the forest during this campaign, and the perplexities of managing them, were by no means counterbalanced by any advantage derived from their aid. As spies and scouts they were of some service; in the field they did nothing.

The forces at the Great Meadows, including Captain Mackay's [South Carolina] company, had now increased to about four hundred men. But a new difficulty arose, which threatened disagreeable consequences. Captain Mackay had a royal commission, which in his opinion put him above the authority of Colonel Washington, who was a colonial officer, commissioned by the governor of Virginia. He was a man of mild and gentlemanly manners, and no personal difference interrupted the harmony between them; but still he declined receiving the orders of the colonel, and his company occupied a separate encampment. .

To avoid altercation, and prevent the contagious example of disobedience from infecting the troops, Colonel Washington resolved to advance with a large part of his army, and, if not obstructed by the enemy, to go on by the shortest route to the Monongahela River. Captain Mackay's company was left at Fort Necessity, as a guard to that post. The road was to be cleared and leveled for artillery-carriages; and the process was so laborious that it took two weeks to effect a passage through the gorge of the mountains to Gist's settlement, a distance of only thirteen miles . . Due vigilance was practiced, and scouts were kept abroad, even as far as the neighborhood of Fort Duquesne, so that the first motions of the enemy might be detected.

It was soon discovered that Fort Duquesne had been reinforced from Canada, and that a force was preparing to march against the English. It was at first decided to make a stand at Gist's settlement, and Mackay's company was ordered up. But another council decided that the enemy's force was too large, and that a retreat was necessary. It was achieved with great difficulty and exertion, the horses being few and weak, and the burden of labor falling on the men.

In two days they all got back to the Great Meadows. It was not the intention at first to halt at this place, but the men had become so much fatigued from great labor and a deficiency of provisions that they could draw the swivels no farther, nor carry the baggage on their backs. They had been eight days without bread, and at the Great Meadows they found only a few bags of flour. .

Colonel Washington set his men to felling trees, and carrying logs to the fort, with a view to raise a breastwork and enlarge and strengthen the fortification in the best manner that circumstances would permit. The space of ground called the Great Meadows is a level bottom, through which passes a small creek, and is surrounded by hills of a moderate and gradual ascent. This bottom, or glade, is entirely level, covered with long grass and bushes, and varies in width. At the point where the fort stood, it is about two hundred and fifty yards wide, from the base of one hill to that of the opposite. The position of the fort was well chosen, being about one hundred yards from the upland, or wooded ground, on the one side, and one hundred and fifty on the other, and so situated on the margin of the creek as to afford an easy access to water. .

On the 3d of July, early in the morning, an alarm was received from a sentinel, who had been wounded by the enemy; and at nine o'clock intelligence came that the whole body of the enemy, amounting, as was reported, to nine hundred men, was only four miles off. At eleven o'clock they approached the fort, and began to fire, at the distance of six hundred yards, but without effect. Colonel Washington had drawn up his men on the open and level ground outside of the trenches, waiting for the attack, which he presumed would be made as soon as the enemy's forces emerged from the woods; and he ordered his men to reserve their fire till they should be near enough to do execution. . He maintained his post till he found the French did not incline to leave the woods and attack the fort by an assault, as he supposed they would, considering their superiority of numbers. He then drew his men back within the trenches, and gave them orders to fire according to their discretion, as suitable opportunities might present themselves. The French and Indians remained on the side of the rising ground which was nearest to the fort, and, sheltered by the trees, kept up a brisk fire of musketry, but never appeared in the open plain below. The rain fell heavily through the day, the trenches were filled with water, and many of the arms of Colonel Washington's men were out of order and used with difficulty.

In this way the battle continued from eleven in the morning till eight at night, when the French called and requested a parley. Suspecting this to be a feint to procure the admission of an officer into the fort, that he might discover their condition, Colonel Washington at first declined to listen to the proposal.

He afterwards agreed to it, and, articles of capitulation being proposed by the French commander, they were accepted and signed by both parties.

By the terms of the capitulation, the whole garrison was to retire, and return without molestation to the inhabited parts of the country; and the French commander promised that no embarrassment should be interposed, either by his won men or the savages. The English were to take away everything in their possession, except their artillery, and to march out of the fort the next morning with the honors of war, their drums beating and colors flying. As the French had killed all the horses and cattle, Colonel Washington had no means of transporting his heavy baggage and stores; and it was conceded to him that his men might conceal their effects, and that a guard might be left to protect them, till horses could be sent up to take them away. Colonel Washington agreed to restore the prisoners who had been taken at the skirmish with Jumonville; and, as a surety for this article, two hostages, Captain Vanbraam and Captain Stobo, were delivered up to the French, and were to be retained till the prisoners should return. It was, moreover, agreed that the party capitulating should not attempt to build any more establishments at that place, or beyond the mountains, for the space of a year.

Early the next morning Colonel Washington began to march from the fort in good order, but he had proceeded only a short distance when a body of one hundred Indians, being a reinforcement to the French, came upon him, and could hardly be restrained from attacking his men. They pilfered the baggage, and did other mischief. He marched forward, however, with as much speed as possible in the weakened and encumbered condition of his army, there being no other mode of conveying the wounded men and the baggage than on the soldiers' backs. As the provisions were nearly exhausted, no time was to be lost; and, leaving much of the baggage behind, he hastened to Will's Creek, where all the necessary supplies were in store. Thence Colonel Washington and Captain Mackay proceeded to Williamsburg, and communicated in person to Governor Dinwiddie the events of the campaign.
 

 

Research Links

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Fort Pitt Museum History and Story Page
... Once General Forbes secured the Point, he renamed Fort Duquesne, Pittsborough
in honor of the Prime Minister of England, William Pitt. ...

OhioKIDS! - Ohio History Central - Historic Indian - Events - ...
... He had hoped to capture Fort Duquesne ... soldiers and their native allies overwhelmed
Fort ... the flash point that started the French and Indian War in ...

1754
... Washington's failure to seize Fort Duquesne ... of war between the two countries would
open the final war between them, the French and Indian War ...

History of the French and Indian War #1
... related, in fact the French and Indian ... la-Chapelle finished that earlier war ... This encroachment
forced the French to ... Some of these forts were Fort Duquesne ...

Seven Years' War
... skirmish of the French and Indian War ... significant of the French and Indian ... defeaed
a reconnaissance party of French and Indians near Fort Duquesne. ...

French And Indian War
... Marquis de Duquesne. Fort Duquesne. Fort Ligonier. Fort Necessity. Fort Pitt. Jumonville
Glen. ... James Wolfe. Start your search on French And Indian War. ...

French and Indian Wars: The French and Indian War
... the series, is usually called simply the French and Indian War. The British undertook
to capture the French forts in the West�not only Duquesne, but also Fort ...

PENNSYLVANIA EVENTS - FRENCH and INDIAN WAR
... Copyright 1998 by Larry Wichterman. FRENCH and INDIAN WAR. Fight for a Continent. ... As
the British advanced on Fort Duquesne the French ...

French and Indian War
... to leave Fort Duquesne. So Washington and 150 men tried to force them out. They attacked
a group of Fenchmen and killed ten of them. The French and Indian War ...

French and Indian War
... Who/What/Where/When. French and Indian War. ... Definition: War fought between Great
Britain and its two enemies, the French and the Indians of North America. ...

SparkNotes: The French and Indian War (1754-1763)
... 1755 at the first battle for Fort Duquesne ... George Washington to tell the French ... the
most successful negotiators with many Indian ... During the war he became a ...

IMDiversity.com - New Film Of French And Indian War Rout Opens At ...
... George Washington dispensed some bad advice that caused the ambush of 1,200 British
troops on their way to Fort Duquesne during the French and Indian War. ...

French and Indian War
... War 1754-1763. The French and Indian ... The war in the Americas started inauspiciously ... Edward
Braddock attempted to attack the French held Fort Duquesne ...

French and Indian Wars -> The French and Indian War on ...
... the series, is usually called simply the French and Indian War. The British undertook
to capture the French forts in the Westnot only Duquesne, but also Fort ...

Pre French and Indian War Events
... undeclared French and Indian War. Though Washington won that engagement, he was soon
defeated at Fort Necessity by a greater force sent out from Fort Duquesne. ...

French and Indian War
... one of their trading forts, called Fort Duquesne ... Britain, however, claimed the fort
was situated ... sparking the beginnig of the French and Indian War ...

History of the French and Indian War #1
... and greatest of the French and Indian ... la-Chapelle finished that earlier war ... This encroachment
forced the French to ... Some of these forts were Fort Duquesne ...

The French and Indian War, 1755-1763
... 25, Fort Duquesne, ... Joseph; Milice de Chambly; Muskets of the Crown; British Regular
Regiments of the French & Indian War, by F&I War Magazine. ...

Sarah's French and Indian War page
... Many Indian tribes lived along this region, and ... of the F&I's best-known events is
the French capture of Fort ... This war is realistically known by many as ...

Nearby and related sites - Fort Necessity National Battlefield
... War Fort Stanwix National Historic Site, NY Other French and Indian War ... Prince George,
built by Dinwiddie's Virginians in 1754; Fort Duquesne ...

Washington, George: The French and Indian War
... John Forbes that took an abandoned Fort Duquesne. With this episode his
pre-Revolutionary military career ended. Sections in this article: ...

The Olive Tree Genealogy: French-Indian Wars - Battle of Fort ...
... But the focus of the war soon shifted away from the continent to the colonies. ... The
following accounts of the French-Indian Wars ... Fort DuQuesne ...

Background of the French and Indian War
... in the Great Meadows not far from Fort Duquesne. On July 3, the French forces struck
back. After a day-long battle--the first of the French and Indian War-- ...

French and Indian Wars: The French and Indian War
... series, is usually called simply the French and Indian War. The British undertook
to capture the French forts in the West—not only Duquesne, but also Fort ...

French and Indian War - Uniforms Chart for British Regiments ( ...
... white lace with black stars between two red stripes, pointed loops. 44 th Regiment
of Foot (Abercromby�s), (1755-1765) failed attack on Fort Duquesne ...

French and Indian War - Uniforms Chart for British Regiments ( ...
... white lace with black stars between two red stripes, pointed loops. 44 th Regiment
of Foot (Abercromby’s), (1755-1765) failed attack on Fort Duquesne ...

French & Indian War Soldiers
Send in your list of French & Indian War Soldiers if not listed already in the Rev.
War Soldiers section. BAILEY, Edmond (VA,NC), battle of Fort Duquesne, July ...

4th Grade History & Geography -- The French and Indian War
... Fort Duquesne, St. Lawrence, victories, Fort William Henry. territory, spatial, Fort ... a
newspaper summary of the events of "The French and Indian War". ...

Virginia - Pennsylvania boundary during the French and Indian War ...
... boundary had been shown as placing Fort Necessity in Pennsylvania and Ft. Duquesne
in Virginia. That is why one can truly say that the French and Indian War ...

Virginia Visions: The French and Indian War
... The British took over Fort Duquesne and then more French soldiers came
and took it back. That was the start of the French and Indian War. ...

The French and Indian War - History Regions and Cities
... he had received information from an Indian ... the first shots fired in the war ... Washington
believed that the French would ... and headed north toward Fort Duquesne ...

O'Neal, O'Neall and O'Neill's in French Indian War
... contributed by Jill O'Neall Ching: My direct ancestor was a wagonner in the French
Indian War. ... They drove, walked and rode to Fort Duquesne ...

USA:(2) The Colonial Period - 7
... at the beginning of the Seven Years War ... strong relationship with a number of Indian ... The
French threatened not only the ... took place in 1754 at Fort Duquesne ...

French and Indian War
... They died because they stayed in line and didn't take cover. George Washington went
to Fort Duquesne and ... In winning the French and Indian War ...

The French and Indian War
... to this area in hope to attack fort Duquesne ... chased away by the French and their Indian ... Determined
to beat the French, the English started another war ...

french-indian-wars
... sent to America to take Fort Duquesne. In July, however, near the fort, a ... Nova Scotia
and repulsed a French and Indian ... impose central control on the war ...

The Seven Year's War
... The English for builders were forced out so the French could build Fort Duquesne.
Newspaper article about the French & Indian War News of the French and Indian ...

Thr French and Indian War
... that provided the spark to start the French and Indian War. True. False. 5, George
Washington was sent West by the Governor of Virginia to build Fort Duquesne and ...

All The World's A Stage - The French and Indian War
... Prelude to the French and Indian War ... the stockade was almost immediately seized by
a French force that built a true fort on the site (Fort Duquesne ...

The French And Indian War
... The French and Indian War (also known as ... The war in the Americas started inauspiciously. ... Braddock
attempted to attack the French held Fort Duquesne ...

 


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