Polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones are molecules with more than one
hydroxyl group (−OH), and a carbonyl group (C=O) either at the terminal carbon
atom (aldose) or at the second carbon atom (ketose).
Polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones are
molecules with more than one hydroxyl group (−OH), and a carbonyl group (C=O)
either at the terminal carbon atom (aldose) or at the second carbon atom (ketose).
The carbonyl group combines in aqueous solution with one hydroxyl group to form
a cyclic compound (hemi-acetal or hemi-ketal). Monosaccharides are
polyhydroxy aldehydes and are called Simple Sugar, any of the basic compounds
that serve as the building blocks of carbohydrates. Monosaccharides are
classified by the number of carbon atoms in the molecule; trioses have three,
tetroses four, pentoses five, hexoses six, and heptoses seven. Most contain five
or six. The most important pentoses include xylose, found combined as xylan in
woody materials; arabinose from coniferous trees; ribose, a component of
ribonucleic acids and several vitamins; and deoxyribose, a component of
deoxyribonucleic acid. Among the most important aldohexoses are glucose,
mannose, and galactose; fructose is a ketohexose.
Several derivatives of monosaccharides are important. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C)
is derived from glucose. Important sugar alcohols (alditols), formed by the
reduction of (i.e., addition of hydrogen to) a monosaccharide, include sorbitol
(glucitol) from glucose and mannitol from mannose; both are used as sweetening
agents. Glycosides derived from monosaccharides are widespread in nature,
especially in plants. Amino sugars (i.e., sugars in which one or two hydroxyl
groups are replaced with an amino group, −NH2) occur as components of
glycolipids and in the chitin of arthropods.
This site and its contents are not affiliated, connected,
associated with or authorized by the individual, family,
friends, or trademarked entities utilizing any part or
the subject's entire name. Any official or affiliated
sites that are related to this subject will be hyper
linked below upon submission
and Evisum, Inc. review.
Please join us in our mission to incorporate America's Four United Republics discovery-based curriculum into the classroom of every primary and secondary school in the United States of America by July 2, 2026, the nation’s 250th birthday. , the United States of America: We The
People. Click Here