An ideal gas can be characterized by three state variables: absolute
pressure (P), volume (V), and absolute temperature (T).
An ideal gas is
defined as one in which all collisions between atoms or molecules are perfectly
elastic and in which there are no intermolecular attractive forces. One can
visualize it as a collection of perfectly hard spheres which collide but which
otherwise do not interact with each other. In such a gas, all the internal
energy is in the form of kinetic energy and any change in internal energy is
accompanied by a change in temperature.
An ideal gas can be characterized by three state variables: absolute pressure
(P), volume (V), and absolute temperature (T). The relationship between them may
be deduced from kinetic theory. The state of an amount of gas is determined by
its pressure, volume, and temperature. The modern form of the equation is:
where p is the absolute pressure of the gas; V is the volume; n is the amount of
substance; R is the gas constant; and T is the absolute temperature.
In SI units, p
is measured in pascals; V in cubic metres; n in moles; and T in kelvin. R has
the value 8.314472 J·K−1·mol−1 in SI units ).
The temperature given in the equation of state must be an absolute temperature
that begins at absolute zero. In the metric system of units, we must specify the
temperature in Kelvin (not degrees Celsius). In the Imperial system, absolute
temperature is in Rankine (not degrees Fahrenheit).
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