A chemical bond is an attraction between atoms or molecules that allows
the formation of chemical compounds, which contain two or more atoms.
Though the periodic table has only
118 or so elements, there are obviously more substances in nature than 118 pure
elements. This is because atoms can react with one another to form new
substances called compounds through chemical bonding.
A chemical bond is an attraction
between atoms or molecules that allows the formation of chemical compounds,
which contain two or more atoms. A chemical bond is the attraction caused by the
electromagnetic force between opposing charges, either between electrons and
nuclei, or as the result of a dipole attraction. The strength of bonds varies
considerably; there are "strong bonds" such as covalent or ionic bonds and "weak
bonds" such as dipole-dipole interactions, the London dispersion force and
Since opposite charges attract via a simple electromagnetic force, the
negatively charged electrons orbiting the nucleus and the positively charged
protons in the nucleus attract each other. Also, an electron positioned between
two nuclei will be attracted to both of them. Thus, the most stable
configuration of nuclei and electrons is one in which the electrons spend more
time between nuclei, than anywhere else in space. These electrons cause the
nuclei to be attracted to each other, and this attraction results in the bond.
However, this assembly cannot collapse to a size dictated by the volumes of
these individual particles. Due to the matter wave nature of electrons and their
smaller mass, they occupy a very much larger amount of volume compared with the
nuclei, and this volume occupied by the electrons keeps the atomic nuclei
relatively far apart, as compared with the size of the nuclei themselves.
In general, strong chemical bonding is associated with the sharing or transfer
of electrons between the participating atoms. Molecules, crystals, and diatomic
gases— indeed most of the physical environment around us— are held together by
chemical bonds, which dictate the structure of matter.
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