Analytical chemistry is the study of the separation, identification, and
quantification of the chemical components of natural and artificial materials.
Analytical chemistry is the study of
the separation, identification, and quantification of the chemical components of
natural and artificial materials. Qualitative analysis gives an indication of
the identity of the chemical species in the sample and quantitative analysis
determines the amount of one or more of these components. The separation of
components is often performed prior to analysis.
Analytical methods can be separated into classical and instrumental. Classical
methods (also known as wet chemistry methods) use separations such as
precipitation, extraction, and distillation and qualitative analysis by color,
odor, or melting point. Quantitative analysis is achieved by measurement of
weight or volume. Instrumental methods use an apparatus to measure physical
quantities of the analyte such as light absorption, fluorescence, or
conductivity. The separation of materials is accomplished using chromatography
or electrophoresis methods.
Analytical chemistry is also focused on improvements in experimental design,
chemometrics, and the creation of new measurement tools to provide better
chemical information. Analytical chemistry has applications in forensics,
bioanalysis, clinical analysis, environmental analysis, and materials analysis.
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