Virtual Museum of Art | Virtual Museum of History | Virtual Public Library | Virtual Science Center | Virtual Museum of Natural History | Virtual War Museum
   You are in: Virtual Museum of Science >> Air and Space Museum >> Apollo-Soyuz Mission

Click here: Who was the first US President? - Two Question Survey

Apollo 11 40th Year Reunion

 


Apollo-Soyuz Mission

July 15, 1975

Docking in space of the two craft occurred on July 17, and joint operations were conducted for two full days.

The Apollo-Soyuz mission was the first manned space flight conducted jointly by two nations.

Text and Scans listed below courtesy of NASA:
NASA Privacy Statement, Disclaimer, and Accessibility Certification

Apollo Soyuz Test Project

Apollo Logo The Apollo-Soyuz mission was the first manned space flight conducted jointly by two nations. The mission started with the Russian Soyuz launch on July 15, 1975, followed by the U.S. Apollo launch on the same day. Docking in space of the two craft occurred on July 17, and joint operations were conducted for two full days. Both spacecraft landed safely and on schedule; the Soyuz landed in the U.S.S.R. on July 21 and Apollo landed near Hawaii on July 24. The United States and the U.S.S.R. achieved a substantial degree of success in (1) obtaining flight experience for rendezvous and docking of manned spacecraft and developing a docking system that would be suitable for use as standard international system, (2) demonstrating inflight intervehicular crew transfer, and (3) conducting a series of science and applications experiments. Twenty-eight science investigations in the fields of Earth resources, Earth gravity, Earth atmosphere, astronomy, solar science, life sciences and space processing were conducted during the mission.

Soyuz Logo During reentry, the American crew was accidentally exposed to nitrogen tetroxide gas. The potentially harmful nitrogen tetroxide gas resulted from inadvertent reaction control system (RCS) firings and entered the command module through the cabin pressure relief valve, which was opened during landing. As a therapeutic measure, the crew was given 100% oxygen for 15 to 20 minutes aboard the recovery vessel. All crewmen complained of chest tightness, coughing, a burning sensation when breathing and an inability to inhale deeply, but made a full recovery from the gas exposure. The therapy given to the crew potentially affected two life sciences experiments that were conducted by preflight and postflight blood sampling and analysis. Despite this impact, scientifically useful results were obtained in these experiments.

Seven life sciences experiments were conducted during the Apollo-Soyuz flight. Three experiments examined particle radiation effects on living cells, three experiments examined the effects of space flight on the human immune system, and one examined the vestibular system of killifish. More specifically, the effects of cosmic particles on living cells were examined by the observation of the light flash phenomenon that occurs to astronauts during different orbital orientations. The Biostack III German experiment extended the studies of previous flights on the effects of highly charged and energetic (HZE) particles on biological organisms by evaluating the growth and development of plant seeds and animal eggs that were contained in the biostack. The zone-forming fungi experiment, a joint U.S. and U.S.S.R. experiment, was an attempt to observe the real-time mutations caused by HZE particle exposure that might occur in a ring of growing fungal cells.

 Microbial exchange of marker microorganisms between cosmonauts and astronauts, another joint U.S. and U.S.S.R. experiment, was examined to determine the level of cross-contamination as a way to understand the balance between the immune system and infectious microorganisms in the space environment. In addition, preflight and postflight blood samples were taken from astronauts to examine in vitro lymphocyte and polymorphonuclear leukocytes response as indicators of cellular immune function.

The swimming behavior of the killifish was filmed during various stages of the mission to understand how microgravity effects hatchlings. Killifish hatching and orientation was observed to determine the function and development of the vestibular system and calcium metabolism as it related to otolith development.

 

Material processing experiments

The material processing experiments conducted on the Apollo-Soyuz Test Flight consisted of 11 experiments, two of which were biological processing and nine of which were considered solid materials processing. The biological materials processing experiments consisted of separating a mixture of biological cells by gel electrophoresis to observe how cells separate without the limitations of sedimentation and thermal convection that normally occur during electrophoresis on the ground. The materials processing experiments were divided into two groups, namely high-temperature and low-temperature processing. The high temperature processing included the melting and solidifying of seven sets of material samples in an electric furnace. The low temperature processing consisted of one experiment that attempted to grow crystals in water at ambient temperatures.

Space sciences experiments

The space sciences experiments that were conducted on the Apollo-Soyuz mission included five astronomy and five Earth studies investigations. The astronomy experiments ranged from soft x-ray observations which focus on objects deep in the galaxy to the crystal activation experiments which had implications for the application of crystal detectors in gamma-ray astronomy. The Earth studies included the ultraviolet absorption experiment which investigated the atomic composition of the upper atmosphere to the study of the Earth's subsurface structure by means of two variations of gravity-field measurements. In addition, the Earth observation and photography experiment examined the surface of the Earth and its land and water regions.

 

 

 

Apollo Soyuz Test Project Experiments

Research Area Experiment Title Experiment ID Investigator
Cardiovascular physiology Cardiovascular Evaluations ASTP006 Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe
Cell and molecular biology Electrophoresis Technology MA-011 Allen, R. E.
Cell and molecular biology Electrophoresis Experiment MA-014 Hanning, K. H.
Cell and molecular biology Zone-Forming Fungi MA-147 Rogers, Thomas D.; Brower, Margaret E.; Taylor, Gerald R.
Clinical medicine Flight Crew Health Stabilization Program ASTP005 Ferguson, James K.
Clinical medicine Crew Health ASTP011 Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; LaPinta, Charles K.; Burchard, Eduard C.; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe, Bartelloni, Peter J.
Developmental biology Killifish Hatching and Orientation MA-161 Scheld, Herbert W.; Baky, Anwar A.; Boyd, John F.; Eichler, Victor B.; Fuller, P. M.; Hoffman, Ronald B.; Keefe, J. R.; Kuchnow, K. P.; Oppenheimer, J. M.; Salinas, Gloria M.; von Baumgarten, R. J.
Endocrinology Biochemistry and Endocrinology Results ASTP010 Leach, Carolyn S.
Hematology Hematological and Immunological Studies ASTP008 Kimzey, Stephen L.; Johnson, Philip C.
Hematology Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Response MA-032 Martin, Russell R.; Warr, Glenn A.; Putman, Margaret J.; Kentor, Diane H.; Holleman, Carolinda L.
Immunology Cellular Immune Response MA-031 Criswell, B. Sue
Metabolism and nutrition Nutrient Energy Requirements Determination ASTP013 Smith, Malcolm C.; Rapp, Rita M.
Microbiology Medical Microbiological Analysis of U. S. Crewmembers ASTP014 Taylor, Gerald R.
Microbiology Microbial Exchange AR-002 Taylor, Gerald R.
Muscle physiology Crew Height Measurement ASTP002 Brown, Jeri W.
Muscle physiology Achilles Tendon Reflex ASTP003 Burchard, Eduard C.; Nicogossian, Arnauld E.
Muscle physiology Inflight Lower Limb Volume Measurement ASTP007 Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe; Bergman, Stuart A.; Nicogossian, Arnauld E.
Muscle physiology Electromyographic Analysis of Skeletal Muscle ASTP009 LaFevers, Earl V.
Radiation biology Light Flash Observations MA-106 Budinger, T. F.; Tobias, Cornelius A. ; Schopper, E., Schott, J. U.; Huesman, R. H.; Upham, F. T.; Weiskamp, T. F.
Radiation biology In-flight Radiation Detection ASTP001 Bailey, J. Vernon
Radiation biology BIOSTACK III - Animal - Brine shrimp eggs (Artemia salina), Flour beetle eggs (Tribolium confusum), Grasshopper eggs (Carausius morosus) Not available Ruether, Walter; Graul, E. H.; Heinrich, W.; Planel, H.; Buecker, Horst; Delpoux, M.; Fogel, S.; Freeling, M.; Horneck, G.; Kranz, A. R.; Scheidemann, U.; Thomas, C.; Tobias, C. A.; Toth, B.; Yang. T.; Allkofer, O. C.; Beaujean, R.; Benton, E. V.; Enge, W.; Facius, R.; Francois, H.; Hildebrand, D.; Jacquot, C.; Kaiser, R.; Massue, J. P.; Obst, E.; Peterson, D. D.; Pfohl, R.; Portal, G.; Reitz, G.; Schopper, E.; Schaefer, M.; Schott, J. U., Siegmon G.
Radiation biology BIOSTACK III - Microorganism - Spores (Bacillus subtilis) Not available Facius, R.; Hildebrand, D.; Hoeltz, G.; Horneck, G.; Schaefer, M.; Toth, B.; Buecker, Horst; Delpoux, M.; Fogel, S.; Freeling, M.; Graul, E. H.; Kranz, A. R.; Planel, H.; Ruether, W.; Scheidemann, U.; Thomas, C.; Tobias, C. A.; Yang, T.; Allkofer, O. C.; Beaujean, R.; Benton, E. V.; Enge, W.; Francois, H.; Heinrich, W.; Jacquot, C.; Kaiser, R.; Massue, J. P.; Obst, E.; Peterson, D. D.; Pfohl, R.; Portal, G.; Reitz, G.; Schopper , E.; Schott, J. U.; Siegmon, G.
Radiation biology BIOSTACK III - Plant - Tobacco seeds (Nicotania tabaccum) Not available Delpoux, M.; Buecker, Horst; Fogel, S.; Freeling, M.; Graul, E. H.; Horneck, G.; Kranz, A. R.; Planel, H.; Ruether, W.; Scheidemann, U.; Thomas, C.; Tobias, C. A.; Toth, B.; Yang, T., Allkofer, O. C.; Beaujean, R.; Benton, E. V.; Enge, W.; Racius, R.; Francois, H.; Heinrich, W.; Hildebrand, D.; Jacquot, C.; Kaiser R.; Massue, J. P.; Obst, E.; Peterson, D. D.; Pfohl, R.; Portal, G.; Reitz, G.; Schopper, E.; Schaefer, M.; Schott, J. U.; Siegmon, G.
Pulmonary physiology Results of Pulmonary Function Tests ASTP012 Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Sawin, Charles F.; Bertelloni, Peter J.

Start your search on Apollo-Soyuz Mission.


America's Four United Republics Exhibit - Click Here


Unauthorized Site: This site and its contents are not affiliated, connected, associated with or authorized by the individual, family, friends, or trademarked entities utilizing any part or the subject's entire name. Any official or affiliated sites that are related to this subject will be hyper linked below upon submission and Evisum, Inc. review.

Copyright© 2000 by Evisum Inc.TM. All rights reserved.
Evisum Inc.TM Privacy Policy

Search:

About Us

 

 

Image Use

Please join us in our mission to incorporate America's Four United Republics discovery-based curriculum into the classroom of every primary and secondary school in the United States of America by July 2, 2026, the nation’s 250th birthday. , the United States of America: We The People Click Here

 

Childhood & Family

Click Here

 

Historic Documents

Articles of Association

Articles of Confederation 1775

Articles of Confederation

Article the First

Coin Act

Declaration of Independence

Declaration of Independence

Emancipation Proclamation

Gettysburg Address

Monroe Doctrine

Northwest Ordinance

No Taxation Without Representation

Thanksgiving Proclamations

Mayflower Compact

Treaty of Paris 1763

Treaty of Paris 1783

Treaty of Versailles

United Nations Charter

United States In Congress Assembled

US Bill of Rights

United States Constitution

US Continental Congress

US Constitution of 1777

US Constitution of 1787

Virginia Declaration of Rights

 

Historic Events

Battle of New Orleans

Battle of Yorktown

Cabinet Room

Civil Rights Movement

Federalist Papers

Fort Duquesne

Fort Necessity

Fort Pitt

French and Indian War

Jumonville Glen

Manhattan Project

Stamp Act Congress

Underground Railroad

US Hospitality

US Presidency

Vietnam War

War of 1812

West Virginia Statehood

Woman Suffrage

World War I

World War II

 

Is it Real?



Declaration of
Independence

Digital Authentication
Click Here

 

America’s Four Republics
The More or Less United States

 
Continental Congress
U.C. Presidents

Peyton Randolph

Henry Middleton

Peyton Randolph

John Hancock

  

Continental Congress
U.S. Presidents

John Hancock

Henry Laurens

John Jay

Samuel Huntington

  

Constitution of 1777
U.S. Presidents

Samuel Huntington

Samuel Johnston
Elected but declined the office

Thomas McKean

John Hanson

Elias Boudinot

Thomas Mifflin

Richard Henry Lee

John Hancock
[
Chairman David Ramsay]

Nathaniel Gorham

Arthur St. Clair

Cyrus Griffin

  

Constitution of 1787
U.S. Presidents

George Washington 

John Adams
Federalist Party


Thomas Jefferson
Republican* Party

James Madison 
Republican* Party

James Monroe
Republican* Party

John Quincy Adams
Republican* Party
Whig Party

Andrew Jackson
Republican* Party
Democratic Party


Martin Van Buren
Democratic Party

William H. Harrison
Whig Party

John Tyler
Whig Party

James K. Polk
Democratic Party

David Atchison**
Democratic Party

Zachary Taylor
Whig Party

Millard Fillmore
Whig Party

Franklin Pierce
Democratic Party

James Buchanan
Democratic Party


Abraham Lincoln 
Republican Party

Jefferson Davis***
Democratic Party

Andrew Johnson
Republican Party

Ulysses S. Grant 
Republican Party

Rutherford B. Hayes
Republican Party

James A. Garfield
Republican Party

Chester Arthur 
Republican Party

Grover Cleveland
Democratic Party

Benjamin Harrison
Republican Party

Grover Cleveland 
Democratic Party

William McKinley
Republican Party

Theodore Roosevelt
Republican Party

William H. Taft 
Republican Party

Woodrow Wilson
Democratic Party

Warren G. Harding 
Republican Party

Calvin Coolidge
Republican Party

Herbert C. Hoover
Republican Party

Franklin D. Roosevelt
Democratic Party

Harry S. Truman
Democratic Party

Dwight D. Eisenhower
Republican Party

John F. Kennedy
Democratic Party

Lyndon B. Johnson 
Democratic Party 

Richard M. Nixon 
Republican Party

Gerald R. Ford 
Republican Party

James Earl Carter, Jr. 
Democratic Party

Ronald Wilson Reagan 
Republican Party

George H. W. Bush
Republican Party 

William Jefferson Clinton
Democratic Party

George W. Bush 
Republican Party

Barack H. Obama
Democratic Party

Please Visit

Forgotten Founders
Norwich, CT

Annapolis Continental
Congress Society


U.S. Presidency
& Hospitality

© Stan Klos

 

 

 

 


Virtual Museum of Art | Virtual Museum of History | Virtual Public Library | Virtual Science Center | Virtual Museum of Natural History | Virtual War Museum