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Lunar-Rover



A moon vehicle.

Text and Scans listed below courtesy of NASA
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July 1, 1999
 Apollo 17's Lunar Rover
Credit: Apollo 17, NASA (Image scanned by Kipp Teague)

Explanation: In December of 1972, Apollo 17 astronauts Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt spent about 75 hours exploring the Moon's Taurus-Littrow valley while colleague Ronald Evans orbited overhead. Cernan and Schmitt were the last humans to walk or ride on the Moon - aided in their explorations by a Lunar Roving Vehicle. The skeletal-looking lunar rover was just over 10 feet long, 6 feet wide and easily carried astronauts, equipment, and rock samples in the Moon's low gravity (about 1/6 Earth's). In this picture, Cernan stands at the back of the rover which carried the two astronauts in lawn-chair style seats. An umbrella-shaped high gain antenna and TV camera are mounted in the front. Powered by four 1/4 horsepower electric motors, one for each wheel, this rover was driven a total of about 18 miles across the lunar surface. Its estimated top speed was nearly 8 miles per hour.

 

The concept of a lunar rover predated Apollo itself, with a 1950s series in Collier's Weekly magazine by Wernher Von Braun and others, Man Will Conquer Space Soon!, describing a six week stay on the moon, featuring ten-ton tractor trailers for moving supplies. In the February 1964 issue of Popular Science Von Braun, then director of NASA Marshall Space Flight Centre, discussed the need for a lunar surface vehicle.

The author of the general idea, design and form of the Lunar Roving Vehicle was Polish-American engineer, scientist and inventor Mieczyslaw G. Bekker.[2] The final lightweight design, the new tires, and the folding mechanism of the assembly, were the inventions of the Hungarian-American engineer Ferenc Pavlics[3].
The first cost-plus-incentive-fee contract to Boeing (with Delco Electronics as a major sub-contractor) was for $19,000,000 and called for delivery of the first LRV by April 1, 1971, but cost overruns led to a final cost of $38,000,000. Four lunar rovers were built, one each for Apollo missions 15, 16, and 17, and one that was used for spare parts after the cancellation of further Apollo missions. There were other LRV models built: a static model to assist with human factors design, an engineering model to design and integrate the subsystems, two 1/6 gravity models for testing the deployment mechanism, a 1-gravity trainer to give the astronauts instruction in the operation of the rover and allow them to practice driving it, a mass model to test the effect of the rover on the Apollo Lunar Module (LM) structure, balance and handling, a vibration test unit to study the LRV's durability and handling of launch stresses, and a qualification test unit to study integration of all LRV subsystems.

LRVs were used for greater surface mobility during the Apollo J-class missions (Apollo 15, Apollo 16, and Apollo 17). The rover was first used on July 31, 1971, during the Apollo 15 mission. This greatly expanded the range of the lunar explorers. Previous teams of astronauts were restricted to short walking distances around the landing site due to the bulky space suit equipment required to sustain life in the lunar environment. The rovers had a top speed of about 8 mph (13 km/h), although Gene Cernan recorded a maximum speed of 11.2 mph (18.0 km/h), giving him the (unofficial) lunar land speed record.[4]
The LRV was developed in only 17 months and yet performed all its functions on the Moon with no major anomalies. Harrison Schmitt of Apollo 17 said, "....the Lunar Rover proved to be the reliable, safe and flexible lunar exploration vehicle we expected it to be. Without it, the major scientific discoveries of Apollo 15, 16, and 17 would not have been possible; and our current understanding of lunar evolution would not have been possible."

The LRVs did experience some minor problems, however. The rear fender extension on the Apollo 16 LRV was lost during the mission's second EVA (extra-vehicular activity) at station 8 when Young bumped into it while going to assist Duke. The dust thrown up from the wheel covered the crew, the console and the communications equipment. High battery temperatures and resulting high power consumption ensued. No repair attempt was mentioned. The fender extension on the Apollo 17 LRV broke when accidentally bumped by Eugene Cernan with a hammer handle. The crew taped the extension back in place, but due to the dusty surfaces, the tape did not adhere and the extension was lost after about one hour of driving, causing the astronauts to be covered with dust. For the second EVA, a replacement "fender" was made with some EVA maps, duct tape, and a pair of clamps from inside the Lunar Module - nominally intended for the moveable overhead light. This repair was later undone so that the clamps could be brought back inside for launch. The maps were brought back and are now on display at the National Air and Space Museum. The abrasion from the dust is evident on some portions of the makeshift fender.

The color television camera mounted on the front of the LRV could be remotely operated by Mission Control in two axes: pan and tilt. This allowed far better television coverage of the EVA than the earlier missions. On each mission, at the conclusion of the astronauts' stay on the surface the Commander drove the LRV to a position away from the Lunar Module so that the camera could record the ascent stage launch.

NASA's rovers have been abandoned and thus added to the list of artificial objects on the Moon. Also on that list are the Soviet Union's unmanned rovers named Lunokhod 1 and Lunokhod 2. - From Wikipedia 04-10-2010


 

Lunar Rover Operations Handbook

Doc. LS006-002-2H
Prepared by the Boeing Company
LRV Systems Engineering
Huntsville, Alabama
April 19, 1971

Digital Images by Eric Jones using a Kodak DC280.
Last revised 27 June 2000.

 


 

Section 1 - General Information

  • Cover Sheet

     

  • Page A, Text - List of Effective Pages

     

  • Page i, Text - Handbook Configuration

     

  • Page ii, Text - Table of Contents

     

  • Page iii, Text - Table of Contents (continued)

     

  • Page iv, Text - List of Illustrations

     

  • Page v, Text - List of Illustrations (continued)

     

  • Page vi, Text - List of Illustrations (continued)

     

  • Page vii, Text - List of Tables

     

  • Page viii, Text - LRV Flight Unit Partial Drawing List (For Reference Only)

     

  • Page 1-1, Text - Introduction, Description, Vehicle Systems

     

  • Page 1-2, Figure 1-1 (sheet 1 of 2), LRV Without Stowed Payload

     

  • Page 1-3, Figure 1-1 (sheet 2 of 2), LRV Components and Dimensions

     

  • Page 1-4, Figure 1-2, 1G Trainer

     

  • Page 1-5, Text - Mobility Subsystem, Wheel, Traction Drive

     

  • Page 1-6, Figure 1-3, Mobility Subsystem

     

  • Page 1-7, Figure 1-4 (sheet 1 of 2), LRV Wheel Cross-Section

     

  • Page 1-8, Figure 1-4 (sheet 2 of 2), 1G Trainer Wheel and Pneumatic Tire

     

  • Page 1-9, Figure 1-5 (sheet 1 of 2), LRV Traction Drive Assembly

     

  • Page 1-10, Figure 1-5 (sheet 2 of 2), 1G Trainer Traction Drive Assembly

     

  • Page 1-11, Figure 1-6, Traction Drive Installation

     

  • Page 1-12, Text - Harmonic Drive, Drive Motor

     

  • Page 1-13, Text - Brakes, Suspension

     

  • Page 1-14, Figure 1-7, Suspension Assembly

     

  • Page 1-15, Text - Steering, Hand Controller

     

  • Page 1-16, Figure 1-8, Steering Assembly

     

  • Page 1-17, Figure 1-9, Steering Control Block Diagram

     

  • Page 1-18, Figure 1-10, Wheel and Steering Disconnects

     

  • Page 1-19, Figure 1-11, Hand Controller

     

  • Page 1-20, Text - Speed Control, Steering Control

     

  • Page 1-21, Figure 1-12, Torque Required to Rotate Hand Controller for Throttle Control

     

  • Page 1-22, Figure 1-13, Torque Required to Rotate Hand Controller for Steering Control

     

  • Page 1-23, Text - Braking Control

     

  • Page 1-24, Figure 1-14, Brake Control Force Vs. Displacement

     

  • Page 1-25, Text - Drive Control Electronics

     

  • Page 1-26, Figure 1-15, Drive Control Electronics - Block Diagram

     

  • Page 1-27, Text - Braking Control (continued)

     

  • Page 1-28, Text - Electrical Power Subsystem

     

  • Page 1-29, Figure 1-16, LRV Battery Configuration

     

  • Page 1-30, Figure 1-17, LRV Batteries, Thermal Blanket, and Dust Covers

     

  • Page 1-31, Distribution and Monitoring System, Caution and Warning System/li>

     

  • Page 1-32, Figure 1-18, Power Distribution System Schematic

     

  • Page 1-33, Figure 1-19, LRV Monitor Schematic

     

  • Page 1-34, Figure 1-20, Caution and Warning System

     

  • Page 1-35, Text - Auxiliary Connector

     

  • Page 1-36, Figure 1-21, Auxiliary Connector Location

     

  • Page 1-37, Text - Control and Display Console, Attitude Indicator, Heading Indicator, Bearing Indicator, Distance Indicator

     

  • Page 1-38, Figure 1-22, Control and Display Console

     

  • Page 1-39, Table 1-1, Control and Display Console Controls

     

  • Page 1-40, Table 1-1 (continued), Control and Display Console Controls

     

  • Page 1-41, Text - Range Indicator, Speed Indicator, Sun Shadow Device

     

  • Page 1-42, Text - Navigation Subsystem

     

  • Page 1-43, Figure 1-23, Navigation Subsystem Block Diagram

     

  • Page 1-44, Figure 1-24, Navigation Components on LRV

     

  • Page 1-45, Figure 1-25, Navigation System Electrical Schematic

     

  • Page 1-46, Figure 1-26, Vehicle Attitude Indicator

     

  • Page 1-47, Figure 1-27, Sun Shadow Device

     

  • Page 1-48, Text - Navigation Subsystem (continued)

     

  • Page 1-49, Text - Crew Station, Seats, Footrests, Inboard Handholds, Outboard Handholds, Arm Rest

     

  • Page 1-50, Figure 1-28, Crew Station Components

     

  • Page 1-51, Text - Seat Belts, Fenders, Toeholds, Floor Panels

     

  • Page 1-52, Figure 1-29, Seat Belts

     

  • Page 1-53, Figure 1-30, Crew Station Floor Panels

     

  • Page 1-54, Text - Thermal Control, LRV Thermal Control, Forward Chassis Thermal Control

     

  • Page 1-55, Figure 1-31, Thermal Control Provisions (Forward Chassis)

     

  • Page 1-56, Figure 1-32, Drive Control Electronics Thermal Control

     

  • Page 1-57, Figure 1-33, SPU Electronics and Battery No.1 Thermal Control

     

  • Page 1-58, Figure 1-34, Battery No. 2 and Direction Gyro Unit Thermal Control

     

  • Page 1-59, Figure 1-35, Battery Dust Cover Closing Mechanism

     

  • Page 1-60, Figure 1-36, Forward Chassis Insulation Blanket

     

  • Page 1-61, Text - Center Chassis Thermal Control, 1G Trainer Thermal Control

     

  • Page 1-62, Table 1-2, 1G Trainer Thermal Control Device Se Points

     

  • Page 1-63, Text, 1G Trainer Thermal Control (continued)

     

  • Page 1-64, Text - Space Support Equipment (SSE), Structural Support Description, Deployment Hardware Description, Deployment Mechanism Operations

     

  • Page 1-65, Figure 1-37, Space Support Equipment

     

  • Page 1-66, Figure 1-38, LM/SSE with LRV Installed

     

  • Page 1-67, Figure 1-39, LRV Deployment Sequence

     

  • Page 1-68, Text - Phase I Deployment Description, Phase II Deployment Description, Phase III Deployment Description

     

  • Page 1-69, Figure 1-40, Insulation Blanket

     

  • Page 1-70, Figure 1-41, LRV Deployment Tapes and Cables

     

  • Page 1-71, Figure 1-42, D-Handle Release System

     

  • Page 1-72, Figure 1-43, LRV/SSE Support Structure and Release System

     

  • Page 1-73, Figure 1-44, Braked Reel

     

  • Page 1-74, Text - Phase III Deployment Description (continued)

     

  • Page 1-75, Figure 1-45, LRV Saddle and Forward Chassis Latch Release

     

  • Page 1-76, Figure 1-46, Forward and Rear Chassis Latch

     

  • Page 1-77, Figure 1-47, Wheel Lock Strut Release

     

  • Page 1-78, Text - Phase III Deployment Description (continued), Phases IV Deployment Description, Phase V Deployment Description

     

 


 

Section 2 - Normal Procedures

  • Page 2-1, Text - Introduction

     

  • Page 2-2, Text - Unloading and Chassis Deployment

     

  • Page 2-3, Figure 2-1, Support and Latch Mechanisms Latched Configuration

     

  • Page 2-4, Figure 2-2, LRV Deployment Tapes and Cables

     

  • Page 2-5, Text - Unloading and Chassis Deployment (continued)

     

  • Page 2-6, Figure 2-3, LRV Deployment Envelope and Envelope for Deployment Tape Operation

     

  • Page 2-7, Figure 2-4, Crewman Position to Deploy LRV

     

  • Page 2-8, Text - Unloading and Chassis Deployment (continued)

     

  • Page 2-9, Figure 2-5, LRV Deployment Sequence

     

  • Page 2-10, Text - Unloading and Chassis Deployment (continued)

     

  • Page 2-11, Figure 2-6, LRV Deployment Hardware and Steering Ring Locations (Sheet1 of 2)

     

  • Page 2-12, Figure 2-6, LRV Deployment Hardware Locations (Sheet 2 of 2)

     

  • Page 2-13, Text - Unloading and Chassis Deployment (continued)

     

  • Page 2-14, Text - Unloading and Chassis Deployment (continued)

     

  • Page 2-15, Figure 2-7, Foot Rest Deployment

     

  • Page 2-16, Figure 2-8, Control and Display Console Deployment

     

  • Page 2-17, Figure 2-9, Seat and PLSS Support Deployment Sequence

     

  • Page 2-18, Text - Unloading and Chassis Deployment (continued)

     

  • Page 2-19, Text - Unloading and Chassis Deployment (continued)

     

  • Page 2-20, Text - Unloading and Chassis Deployment (continued)

     

  • Page 2-21, Text - Unloading and Chassis Deployment (continued)

     

  • Page 2-22, Text - LRV Post Deployment Checkout and Drive to MESA

     

  • Page 2-23, Text - LRV Post Deployment Checkout and Drive to MESA (continued)

     

  • Page 2-24, Figure 2-10, Crew Position

     

  • Figure 2-11 - Temporarily unavailable

     

  • Page 2-26, Text - LRV Post Deployment Checkout and Drive to MESA (continued)

     

  • Page 2-27, Text - LRV Post Deployment Checkout and Drive to MESA (continued)

     

  • Page 2-28, Text - LRV Post Deployment Checkout and Drive to MESA (continued)

     

  • Page 2-29, Text - Payload Loading

     

  • Page 2-30, Figure 2-12, LCRU/TV/LRV Cable Stowage

     

  • Page 2-31, Figure 2-13, LCRU, High-Gain Antenna, TV Camera Installation

     

  • Page 2-32, Text - Payload Loading (continued)

     

  • Page 2-33, Text - Payload Loading (continued)

     

  • Page 2-34, Figure 2-14, 16mm DAC and Low-Gain Antenna Installation

     

  • Page 2-35, Text - Payload Loading (continued)

     

  • Page 2-36, Figure 2-15, LCRU Low-Gain Antenna Cable Installation of Lunar Surface

     

  • Page 2-37, Figure 2-16, LRV Rear Payload Pallet Adapters

     

  • Page 2-38, Text - Payload Loading (continued)

     

  • Page 2-39, Figfure 2-17, Rear Payload Pallet Installed

     

  • Page 2-40, Figure 2-18, Buddy SLSS Installation

     

  • Page 2-41, Text - Pre Sortie Checkout and Preparation

     

  • Page 2-42, Text - Pre Sortie Checkout and Preparation (continued)

     

  • Page 2-43, Text - Pre Sortie Checkout and Preparation (continued)

     

  • Page 2-44, Text - Pre Sortie Checkout and Preparation (continued)

     

  • Page 2-45, Text - LRV Configuration for Science Stop

     

  • Page 2-46, Text - LRV Configuration Prior to Leaving Science Stop

     

  • Page 2-47, Text - LRV Configuration Prior to Leaving Science Stop (continued)

     

  • Page 2-48, Text - Post Sortie Checkout

     

  • Page 2-49, Text - Post Sortie Checkout (continued)

     

  • Page 2-50, Text - Display Reading Sequence and Time Intervals

     

 


 

Section 3 - Malfunction Procedures

  • Page 3-1, Text - Introduction, Symptom Column, Procedure Column, Remarks Column

     

  • Page 3-2, Table 3-1, Malfunction Procedures

     

  • Page 3-3, Text - Caution and Warning Flag Actuates; Either Battery Temp Greater than 125F

     

  • Page 3-4, Text - One Drive Motor Temp Greater Than 400F, Abnormal Imbalance Between Batt 1 and Batt 2 Amps - Vehicle Acceleration Normal or Low

     

  • Page 3-5, Text - Abnormal Imbalance Between Batt 1 and Batt 2 Amps - Vehicle Acceleration Normal or Low (continued), Front (Rear) Wheels Do Not Respond to Handcontroller Steering Commands

     

  • Page 3-6, Text - One or More Wheels Drive While in Neutral

     

  • Page 3-7, Text - Loss of Drive from One or More Wheels - Commanded Acceleration Abnormally Low

     

  • Page 3-8, Text - Commanded Vehicle Speed Abnormally High - Speed Not Variable on One or More Wheels

     

  • Page 3-9, Text - Loss of Drive from All Wheels

     

  • Page 3-10, Text - Brake Will Not Release

     

  • Page 3-11, Text - Loss of Voice Comm with MSFN

     

  • Page 3-12, Text - Loss of Voice Comm with MSFN (continued)

     

 


 

Section 4 - Auxiliary Equipment

  • Page 4-1, Text - Introduction, Forward Chassis Payload Provisions, Center Chassis Payload Provisions

     

  • Page 4-2, Figure 4-1, LCRU, High Gain Antenna, TV Camera Installation

     

  • Page 4-3, Figure 4-2, LCRU/TV/LRV Cable Stowage

     

  • Page 4-4, Figure 4-3, LCRU Low Gain Antenna Cable Installation on Lunar Surface

     

  • Page 4-5, Figure 4-4, 16 MM DAC and Low Gain Antenna Installation

     

  • Page 4-6, Text - Center Chassis Payload Provisions (continued), Rear Chassis Payload Provisions

     

  • Page 4-7, Figure 4-5, UnderSeat6 Stowage Bag (Left Seat)

     

  • Page 4-8, Figure 4-6, Passenger Seat Stowage to Create Payload Area on Center Chassis Floor

     

  • Page 4-9, Figure 4-7, Buddy SLSS Installation

     

  • Page 4-10, Figure 4-8, LRV Rear Payload Pallet Adapters

     

  • Page 4-11, Figure 4-9, Rear Payload Pallet Installed

     

 


 

Section 5 - Operating Limitations

  • Page 5-1, Text - Introduction, Parking Limitations, Sortie Limitations

     

  • Page 5-2, Figure 5-1, Allowable C.G. Envelope for Vehicle Fully Loaded

     

  • Page 5-3, Figure 5-2, Parking Orientation Constraints

     

  • Page 5-4, Text - Navigation system Limitations

     

 


 

Section 6 - Operating Timelines

  • Page 6-1, Text - Introduction

     

  • Page 6-2, Figure 6-1, LRV Deployment Timeline

     

  • Page 6-3, Figure 6-1, LRV Deployment Timeline (continued)

     

  • Page 6-4, Figure 6-1, LRV Deployment Timeline (continued)

     

  • Page 6-5, Figure 6-1, LRV Deployment Timeline (continued)

     

  • Page 6-6, Figure 6-1, LRV Deployment Timeline (continued)

     

  • Page 6-7, Figure 6-2, LRV Post Deployment Checkout Timeline

     

  • Page 6-8, Figure 6-2, LRV Post Deployment Checkout Timeline (continued)

     

  • Page 6-9, Figure 6-3, Pre-Sortie Checkout and Preparation Timeline

     

  • Page 6-10, Figure 6-3, Pre-Sortie Checkout and Preparation Timeline (continued)

     

  • Page 6-11, Figure 6-4, Post-Sortie Shutdown timeline

     

  • Page 6-12, Figure 6-5, Navigation Update Timeline

     

  • Page 6-13, Figure 6-6, LRV Traction Drive Decoupling Timeline (Contingency Operation)

     

  • Page 6-14, Figure 6-7, LRV Steering Decoupling Timeline (Contingency Operation)

     

  • Page 6-15, Figure 6-8, LRV Rear Steering Recoupling Timeline (Contingency Operation)

     

  • Page 6-16, Figure 6-9, 1G Trainer Battery Changeout

     

  • Page 6-17, Figure 6-10, 1G Trainer Traction Drive Decoupling Timeline

     

  • Page 6-18, Figure 6-11, 1G Trainer Steering Decoupling Timeline

     

 


 

Section 7 - Operating Profiles

  • Page 7-1, Text - Normal Operating Profile

     

  • Page 7-2, Figure 7-1, Nominal Operating Profile

     

  • Page 7-3, Text - Contingency Operating Profiles

     

  • Page 7-4, Text - 1G Trainer Operating Profile

     

  • Page 7-5, Figure 7-2, Nominal Operating Profile for 1G Trainer

     

  • Page 7-6, Text, 1G Trainer Contingency Operating Profile

     

 


 

Section 8 - 1G Trainer Non-Crew Procedures

  • Page 8-1, Text - Introduction, General Procedures, Visual Inspection, General Repair

     

  • Page 8-2, Figure 8-1, 1G Trainer Basic Vehicle Block Diagram

     

  • Page 8-3, Figure 8-2, 1G Trainer Vehicle Power Distribution Block Diagram

     

  • Page 8-4, Figure 8-3, 1G Trainer Vehicle Front Traction Drive Electrical Signal Routing Block Diagram

     

  • Page 8-5, Figure 8-4, 1G Trainer Vehicle Rear Traction Drive Electrical Signal Routing Block Diagram

     

  • Page 8-6, Figure 8-5, 1G Trainer Vehicle Front Steering Electrical Signal Routing Block Diagram

     

  • Page 8-7, Figure 8-6, 1G Trainer Vehicle Rear Steering Electrical Signal Routing Block Diagram

     

  • Page 8-8, Figure 8-7, 1G Trainer Odometer Electrical Signal Routing Block Diagram

     

  • Page 8-9, Figure 8-8, 1G Trainer Vehicle Temperature Diagnostics Electrical Signal Routing Block Diagram

     

  • Page 8-10, Text - General Repair (continued), Cleaning

     

  • Page 8-11, Text - Storage, Safety Considerations

     

  • Page 8-12, Text - Specific Procedures, Chassis, Hand Controller, Suspension

     

  • Page 8-13, Text - Specific Procedures, Suspension (continued)

     

  • Page 8-14, Text - Specific Procedures, Traction Drive

     

  • Page 8-15, Table 8-1, 1G Trainer Steering Operation Data

     

  • Page 8-16, Text - Specific Procedures, Wheels, Brakes

     

  • Page 8-17, Figure 8-9, 1G Trainer Wheel Decoupling

     

  • Page 8-18, Text - Specific Procedures, Brakes (continued)

     

  • Page 8-19, Figure 8-10, 1G Trainer Brake Linkage

     

  • Page 8-20, Text - Specific Procedures, Brakes (continued), Steering Unit

     

  • Page 8-21, Text - Specific Procedures, Steering Unit (continued), Drive Power

     

  • Page 8-22, Figure 8-11, 1G Trainer Steering Arm Clamping to Simulate Steering Decoupling

     

  • Page 8-23, Text - Specific Procedures, Battery Change-Out

     

  • Page 8-24, Figure 8-12, 1G Trainer Battery Installation

     

  • Page 8-25, Text - Specific Procedures, Battery Change-Out (continued), Battery Recharging

     

  • Page 8-26, Figure 8-13, 1G Trainer Battery Charging Circuit

     

  • Page 8-27, Text - Specific Procedures, Battery Recharging (continued)

     

  • Page 8-28, Text - Preventive Maintenance Assembly Remove and Replace Procedures

     

  • Page 8-29, Text - Preventive Maintenance Assembly Remove and Replace Procedures (continued)

     

  • Page 8-30, Text - Preventive Maintenance Assembly Remove and Replace Procedures (continued)

     

  • Page 8-31, Text - Preventive Maintenance Assembly Remove and Replace Procedures (continued)

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Democratic Party

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Republican Party

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Republican Party 

William Jefferson Clinton
Democratic Party

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Republican Party

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Democratic Party

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