Happiness in intelligent people is the rarest thing I know. -- Ernest Hemingway
Ernest Miller Hemingway ( Oak Park , Illinois , July 21 of
1899 - Ketchum , Idaho , on July 2 of 1961 ) was a writer and journalist, U.S. ,
and one of the leading novelists and short story writers of the twentieth
century . He won the Pulitzer Prize in 1953 for The Old Man and the Sea , and
the following year the Nobel Prize for Literature for his entire work.
Born in Oak Park (Illinois) on July 21, 1899. He was the second son of a family
of six. His father, Clarence Hemingway Edmond, was a doctor and he loved hunting
and fishing. His mother, Grace Hall Hemingway, had studied music and made him
interested in her. Ernest's father owned a house with land in Walloon Lake, near
Petoskey ( Michigan ). He learned to fish (with three years was already able to
handle a cane) and hunting (with twelve wielding the rifle).
He studied at the Oak Park and River Forest High School, where he learned to
play the cello and was part of the orchestra. He was captain of water polo and
played rugby . Was also interested in boxing and fighting with peers in the
wasteland. The studies highlighted in tongues, but apathy felt by the other
subjects. He showed his literary skills in the school newspaper, using the alias
Ring Lardner, Jr.
After finishing his studies in 1917 , he refused to go to college, as his father
wanted, or wanted to continue his studies cello, as her mother wanted. He moved
to Kansas and in October 1917 he began working as a reporter at the Kansas City
The United States had entered the war on April 6, 1917 , and Ernest did not want
to miss the chance to follow the American Expedition Corps, as did John Dos
Passos , William Faulkner or F. Scott Fitzgerald . Due to a defect in the left
eye, was excluded as a fighter. He got his admission as an ambulance driver for
the Red Cross and landed in Bordeaux in late May 1918 , to go to Italy .
On 8 July 1918 he was seriously wounded by the Austrian artillery. With legs and
a broken knee injuries, was able to load shouldered an Italian soldier for
safekeeping. He walked 40 meters until he fainted. The heroism earned him the
recognition of the Italian government with the Silver Medal of Valor. He nearly
lost his leg in the absence of intervention by a nurse, Agnes von Kurowsky ,
with whom he began a relationship (she was older than him). During his recovery
in the hospital in Milan , fell in love with the nurse and asked her marriage,
however, he returned home, and while he waited, never married. This would affect
Hemingway returned to the United States in January 1919 , resuming his work as a
journalist for the Toronto Star and as editor of the monthly Cooperative
Commonwealth . He married Elizabeth Hadley Richardson, who was eight years his
senior, on 3 September 1920 . The couple moved to Paris in 1922 . There, the
following year their first child was born, John Hadley Nicanor Hemingway (in
tribute to matador Nicanor Nicanor Villalta ), whom he called Bumby . In Paris
knows the literary avant-garde and is related to members of the so-called " Lost
Generation ": Gertrude Stein , Ezra Pound and F. Scott Fitzgerald among others,
and also with James Joyce . The family lived in an austere Hemingway story, but
when Ernest wrote to his family telling them living in the best area of the
Latin Quarter . His literary beginnings were not easy. His early work: Three
Stories and Ten Poems (1923) and in the world (1925) went unnoticed. Ernest made
his living as a correspondent and traveled throughout Europe. It was also used
as sparring for boxers and "hunted" pigeons in the Luxembourg Gardens when'd
walk to her son, for the savings and not earning much detracted.
The year 1925 marked the discovery of Hemingway for American publishers, and the
year he wrote his first novel, Feast . Then Hemingway lived in the center of
Valencia . The new style that was in this book, portrait of bohemian Paris of
the twenties and much of autobiographical, left behind a dark and experimental
literature, being more powerful and successful.
Ernest Hemingway Memorial in Pamplona .
In 1929 , published A Farewell to Arms , content autobiographical novel, as it
is based on their way through the war and his experiences on the front lines.
Followers two editions more optimistic, which address two issues he was
passionate about: the bullfight , in Death in the Afternoon , and Africa , in
Green Hills of Africa ( 1935 ). In 1928 returned to the United States with his
second wife, but soon leaves for Cuba . From that moment, he begins a curious
and ultimately transformation. Moves away from individualism, as can be seen in
Have and Have Not ( 1937 ), which describes the failure of individual rebellion,
and is committed to the fight humanitarian and union people. Commits his writing
in this new stage with Republicans during the Spanish Civil War Spanish ,
commitment who testifies in the script, along with filmmaker Joris Ivens, the
documentary film Spanish Earth , in the play The Fifth Column ( 1938 ) and of
course in For Whom the Bell Tolls , a masterpiece of world literature.
Outbreak of World War II . Their destination was the sea of Antilles and its
mission to patrol boats flag capture Nazi . In 1944 he traveled to Europe as a
war correspondent, participating in aerial reconnaissance missions in Germany
and is part of the Normandy landings , being one of the first correspondents to
enter Paris . Until 1950 no rewrites. Across the River and Into the Trees is his
first publication after those turbulent years of war.
He joined the 22nd Infantry Regiment commanded by Colonel Charles Lanham, bound
for Paris, Hemingway became the de facto leader of a small group of militants in
the village of Rambouillet in Paris. The historian Paul Fussell remarks that
"Hemingway got into considerable trouble playing infantry captain of a
Resistance group, because it is assumed that a correspondent should not lead
troops, even if he does well." This was, in fact, a violation of the Geneva
Convention, Hemingway claimed that only offered advice.
In 2006 it was made public in the book "Whatever Happened to Schiller's
skull?" Rainer Schmitz (a collection of episodes and anecdotes about famous
writers) one that Ernest Hemingway recounted their experiences in war Mizener
Arthur, professor of literature at Cornell University, under which prisoners
have killed 122 Germans and other details. There is no evidence or data to
support this figure is included in the book, as William supports. E. Cote
(Professor, University of Michigan) in their investigation. 2 Some views, such
as that of Professor William Walton , three friends and war correspondent, the
proclivity to blame his narrative fiction.
Hemingway lived almost 20 years in Cuba , in a house called " Finca Vigia ",
where he wrote this novel. In 1952 surprised with a brief story commissioned by
the magazine Life , The Old Man and the Sea , which is awarded Pulitzer in 1953
The sculpture in honor of Hemingway, by Jose Villa Soberon , the Floridita .
The story recounts the experience of an old fisherman who has had a bad run goes
fishing decided to finish it. A year later will get the Nobel Prize for
Literature for his body of work. Before receiving the award, Hemingway said
several times that "the prize belonged to Cuba» 4 and after receiving the Nobel
said it was the first " sato Cuban who received this prestigious award. "
Hemingway maintained a friendly relationship with the ruler of Cuba Fidel Castro
From that moment you try to write a novel about World War II , which never
conclude. And again in new stories to those early years in Paris and Spain ( A
Moveable Feast ), places where it was " very poor, but very happy ", longing for
the feeling that caused him to be a young dreamer, brave and risky who not only
wrote about events that one day would become part of history, but was also part
On July 2 of 1961 he shot himself with a shotgun. Given the absence of a suicide
note and the angle of the shot, it is really difficult to determine whether his
death was self-inflicted or if it was an accident. It is assumed that a possible
cause was Alzheimer's disease that was diagnosed shortly before and its markedly
depressed and his alcoholism.
Ernest Hemingway and Others with Marlin July, 1934
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