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Ernest Hemingway

1899-1961

Happiness in intelligent people is the rarest thing I know. -- Ernest Hemingway

Ernest Miller Hemingway ( Oak Park , Illinois , July 21 of 1899 - Ketchum , Idaho , on July 2 of 1961 ) was a writer and journalist, U.S. , and one of the leading novelists and short story writers of the twentieth century . He won the Pulitzer Prize in 1953 for The Old Man and the Sea , and the following year the Nobel Prize for Literature for his entire work.

Born in Oak Park (Illinois) on July 21, 1899. He was the second son of a family of six. His father, Clarence Hemingway Edmond, was a doctor and he loved hunting and fishing. His mother, Grace Hall Hemingway, had studied music and made ​​him interested in her. Ernest's father owned a house with land in Walloon Lake, near Petoskey ( Michigan ). He learned to fish (with three years was already able to handle a cane) and hunting (with twelve wielding the rifle).

He studied at the Oak Park and River Forest High School, where he learned to play the cello and was part of the orchestra. He was captain of water polo and played rugby . Was also interested in boxing and fighting with peers in the wasteland. The studies highlighted in tongues, but apathy felt by the other subjects. He showed his literary skills in the school newspaper, using the alias Ring Lardner, Jr.

After finishing his studies in 1917 , he refused to go to college, as his father wanted, or wanted to continue his studies cello, as her mother wanted. He moved to Kansas and in October 1917 he began working as a reporter at the Kansas City Star .

The United States had entered the war on April 6, 1917 , and Ernest did not want to miss the chance to follow the American Expedition Corps, as did John Dos Passos , William Faulkner or F. Scott Fitzgerald . Due to a defect in the left eye, was excluded as a fighter. He got his admission as an ambulance driver for the Red Cross and landed in Bordeaux in late May 1918 , to go to Italy .

On 8 July 1918 he was seriously wounded by the Austrian artillery. With legs and a broken knee injuries, was able to load shouldered an Italian soldier for safekeeping. He walked 40 meters until he fainted. The heroism earned him the recognition of the Italian government with the Silver Medal of Valor. He nearly lost his leg in the absence of intervention by a nurse, Agnes von Kurowsky , with whom he began a relationship (she was older than him). During his recovery in the hospital in Milan , fell in love with the nurse and asked her marriage, however, he returned home, and while he waited, never married. This would affect lifetime Hemingway.

Hemingway returned to the United States in January 1919 , resuming his work as a journalist for the Toronto Star and as editor of the monthly Cooperative Commonwealth . He married Elizabeth Hadley Richardson, who was eight years his senior, on 3 September 1920 . The couple moved to Paris in 1922 . There, the following year their first child was born, John Hadley Nicanor Hemingway (in tribute to matador Nicanor Nicanor Villalta ), whom he called Bumby . In Paris knows the literary avant-garde and is related to members of the so-called " Lost Generation ": Gertrude Stein , Ezra Pound and F. Scott Fitzgerald among others, and also with James Joyce . The family lived in an austere Hemingway story, but when Ernest wrote to his family telling them living in the best area of the Latin Quarter . His literary beginnings were not easy. His early work: Three Stories and Ten Poems (1923) and in the world (1925) went unnoticed. Ernest made ​​his living as a correspondent and traveled throughout Europe. It was also used as sparring for boxers and "hunted" pigeons in the Luxembourg Gardens when'd walk to her son, for the savings and not earning much detracted.

The year 1925 marked the discovery of Hemingway for American publishers, and the year he wrote his first novel, Feast . Then Hemingway lived in the center of Valencia . The new style that was in this book, portrait of bohemian Paris of the twenties and much of autobiographical, left behind a dark and experimental literature, being more powerful and successful.


Ernest Hemingway Memorial in Pamplona .
In 1929 , published A Farewell to Arms , content autobiographical novel, as it is based on their way through the war and his experiences on the front lines. Followers two editions more optimistic, which address two issues he was passionate about: the bullfight , in Death in the Afternoon , and Africa , in Green Hills of Africa ( 1935 ). In 1928 returned to the United States with his second wife, but soon leaves for Cuba . From that moment, he begins a curious and ultimately transformation. Moves away from individualism, as can be seen in Have and Have Not ( 1937 ), which describes the failure of individual rebellion, and is committed to the fight humanitarian and union people. Commits his writing in this new stage with Republicans during the Spanish Civil War Spanish , commitment who testifies in the script, along with filmmaker Joris Ivens, the documentary film Spanish Earth , in the play The Fifth Column ( 1938 ) and of course in For Whom the Bell Tolls , a masterpiece of world literature.

Outbreak of World War II . Their destination was the sea of Antilles and its mission to patrol boats flag capture Nazi . In 1944 he traveled to Europe as a war correspondent, participating in aerial reconnaissance missions in Germany and is part of the Normandy landings , being one of the first correspondents to enter Paris . Until 1950 no rewrites. Across the River and Into the Trees is his first publication after those turbulent years of war.

He joined the 22nd Infantry Regiment commanded by Colonel Charles Lanham, bound for Paris, Hemingway became the de facto leader of a small group of militants in the village of Rambouillet in Paris. The historian Paul Fussell remarks that "Hemingway got into considerable trouble playing infantry captain of a Resistance group, because it is assumed that a correspondent should not lead troops, even if he does well." This was, in fact, a violation of the Geneva Convention, Hemingway claimed that only offered advice.

In 2006 it was made ​​public in the book "Whatever Happened to Schiller's skull?" Rainer Schmitz (a collection of episodes and anecdotes about famous writers) one that Ernest Hemingway recounted their experiences in war Mizener Arthur, professor of literature at Cornell University, under which prisoners have killed 122 Germans and other details. There is no evidence or data to support this figure is included in the book, as William supports. E. Cote (Professor, University of Michigan) in their investigation. 2 Some views, such as that of Professor William Walton , three friends and war correspondent, the proclivity to blame his narrative fiction.

Hemingway lived almost 20 years in Cuba , in a house called " Finca Vigia ", where he wrote this novel. In 1952 surprised with a brief story commissioned by the magazine Life , The Old Man and the Sea , which is awarded Pulitzer in 1953 .


The sculpture in honor of Hemingway, by Jose Villa Soberon , the Floridita .

The story recounts the experience of an old fisherman who has had a bad run goes fishing decided to finish it. A year later will get the Nobel Prize for Literature for his body of work. Before receiving the award, Hemingway said several times that "the prize belonged to Cuba» 4 and after receiving the Nobel said it was the first " sato Cuban who received this prestigious award. "

Hemingway maintained a friendly relationship with the ruler of Cuba Fidel Castro

From that moment you try to write a novel about World War II , which never conclude. And again in new stories to those early years in Paris and Spain ( A Moveable Feast ), places where it was " very poor, but very happy ", longing for the feeling that caused him to be a young dreamer, brave and risky who not only wrote about events that one day would become part of history, but was also part of it.

On July 2 of 1961 he shot himself with a shotgun. Given the absence of a suicide note and the angle of the shot, it is really difficult to determine whether his death was self-inflicted or if it was an accident. It is assumed that a possible cause was Alzheimer's disease that was diagnosed shortly before and its markedly depressed and his alcoholism.

 

Control Number NLK-EHEMC-KEYWEST-8GG
Media Photographs
Descr. Level Item
Collection EHEMC
Series KEYWEST
Item 8GG
Title Ernest Hemingway and Others with Marlin July, 1934
Dates 07/1934
Sample Record(s) (larger access file - 95825 bytes)
Creating Indiv. Hemingway, Ernest
Scope & Content Photograph of Ernest Hemingway in Havana Harbor after catching a marlin. Included in the picture are Carlos Gutiericz, Ernest Hemingway, and Sidney Franklin. Others are unidentified.
See Also Series Description
Personal Ref. Hemingway, Ernest
Geographic Ref. Key West
Access Unrestricted.
Use Restrictions None.
Items 1 image(s)
Contact John Fitzgerald Kennedy Library (NLK), Columbia Point, Boston, MA 02125 PHONE: 617-929-4500 FAX: 617-929-4538

 

 

Control Number NLK-EHEMC-MANUSCRIPTS-94B-8B
Media Textual records
Descr. Level Item
Collection EHEMC
Series MANUSCRIPTS
File Unit 94B
Item 8B
Title Possible Titles for IN OUR TIME
Dates n.d.
Sample Record(s) (larger access file - 65074 bytes)
Creating Indiv. Hemingway, Ernest
Record Type/Genre Notes
Scope & Content Some of Ernest Hemingway's title ideas for IN OUR TIME.
Contributors writer, Hemingway, Ernest
See Also File Unit Description
Subject Ref. Manuscripts; IN OUR TIME
Personal Ref. Hemingway, Ernest
Access Unrestricted.
Use Restrictions None.
Items 1 item(s)
Contact John Fitzgerald Kennedy Library (NLK), Columbia Point, Boston, MA 02125 PHONE: 617-929-4500 FAX: 617-929-4538

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