Marcelino Cirilo Vicente Aleixandre and Merlo ( Sevilla , April 26 of 1898 -
Madrid , December 13 of 1984 ) was a poet Spanish call Generation 27 .
Elected academic session on June 30 of 1949 , joined the Royal Spanish Academy
on January 22 of 1950 . He served as chair of the letter O.
National Literature Prize in 1933 for destruction or love , one Critics Award in
1963 for In a vast domain , and in 1969 , for the consummation Poems and Nobel
Prize for Literature in 1977 .
Born into a family of the Spanish bourgeoisie, his father was a railroad
engineer. Born in Seville in 1898 but spent his childhood in Malaga , where he
shares with future studies writer Emilio Prados .
He moved to Madrid where he studied law and business. In 1919 he graduated in
law and gets the title of mayor merchant. Is professor of Commercial Law from
1920 to 1922 at the School of Commerce.
In 1917 he meets Damaso Alonso in Las Navas del Marqués , where vacationing, and
this contact is the discovery of Rubén Darío , Antonio Machado and Juan Ramón
Jiménez . Thus begins a deep passion for poetry.
His health began to deteriorate in 1922. In 1925 he declared tuberculous
nephritis, ending with the removal of a kidney operation in 1932 . His first
poems were published in the Journal of the West in 1926 . Establish contact with
Cernuda , Altolaguirre , Alberti and García Lorca . Throughout his life hiding
his homosexuality. In the thirties the poet knows Andrew Steel and both begin an
intense relationship that is broken by exile to Mexico Andres after the Civil
War. In the words of Molina Foix , "was very demure Aleixandre your condition
homosexual for the damage they could do to his family, especially his sister,
but I was told that when he died he did not care who knew the truth; considered
was no dishonor ".
After the Civil War exiles not, despite his leftist ideas, remains in Spain and
becomes one of the teachers of young poets.
His poetry has several stages: pure, surreal, anthropocentric and old age.
His first book, Scope , composed between 1924 and 1927 and published in Málaga
in 1928 , is the work of a poet emerging, which has not yet found its own voice.
Predominantly asonantado short verse and aesthetics of pure poetry juanramoniana
and guilleniana also echo ultraístas and classical poetry of the Spanish Golden
Age, especially Fray Luis de León and Góngora .
In the following years, between 1928 and 1932 , there is a radical change in his
poetic conception. Inspired by the forerunners of surrealism (especially by
Arthur Rimbaud and Lautréamont ) and Freud , as an expression adopts the prose
poem ( Passion of the Earth , in 1935 ) and free verse ( Swords and lips , in
1932 , The Destruction or Love , 1935, Shadow of Paradise , in 1944 ). The
appearance of these poems is irrational, and the expression is close to
automatic writing , but not accept it on faith. The poet celebrates love as
uncontrollable natural force that destroys all human limitations, and criticizes
the conventions with which society attempts to capture him.
After the war, his work changed, approaching the concerns of social poetry
prevailing. From a position of solidarity, addresses common man's life, his
sufferings and illusions. His style is simple and accessible. There are two
fundamental books of this stage: History of heart , of 1954 and in a vast domain
, in 1962 .
Poetry of old age
In his last book ( Poems of consummation , of 1968 , and Dialogues of knowledge
, of 1974 ), the poet's style to turn back. The experience of old age and
approaching death lead him back to irrationalism youth, albeit in a highly
purified form and serene. These two titles canonical, that is, of life published
by the poet himself, could add a third, "To a great night," Released
posthumously, in 1991 , and in line metaphysical and reflective than the
Books of poetry
Scope , Malaga (6. º Litoral Supplement), 1928 .
Swords and lips , M., Espasa-Calpe, 1932 .
Destruction or Love , M., Star, 1935 (National Book Award 1933 ).
Passion of the land , Mexico, Fable, 1935 (2nd enlarged edition: Madrid, Adonais,
Shadow of Paradise , M., Adam, 1944 .
In the death of Miguel Hernandez , Zaragoza, Binder Located Hours, 1948 .
World alone , M., Clan, 1950 .
Paradise Poems , Málaga, El Arroyo de Los Angeles, 1952 .
Birth Finally , M., Insula, 1953 .
History of heart , M., Espasa-Calpe, 1954 .
Paradise City , Malaga, Dart, 1960 .
Complete Poems , M., Aguilar, 1960 . (Ed. author's own and Arturo del Hoyo)
In a vast domain , M., Revista de Occidente, 1962 (Critics Award).
Pictures with name , B., Col. El Bardo, 1965 .
Works , M., Aguilar, 1968 (2nd enlarged edition: 1977 ).
Poems of consummation , B., Plaza y Janes, 1968 (Critics Award).
Surrealist poetry . Anthology, B., Barral, 1971 .
Sound of War , Valencia, Hontanar, 1971 .
Knowledge Dialogues , B., Plaza y Janes, 1974 .
Three poems pseudonyms , Malaga, Col. Juan de Yepes, 1984 .
Several new poems , B., Plaza y Janes, 1987 . (Ed. Alejandro Duque Amusco;
compilation: the same and Irma Emiliozzi)
Prosas recovered , B., Plaza y Janes, 1987 . (Ed. Alejandro Duque Amusco)
In great night. Last poems , B., Seix Barral, 1991 . (Ed. by Carlos and
Alejandro Duque Bousoño Amusco)
Album. Verses of youth (with Damaso Alonso and others), B., Tusquets, 1993 (ed.
Amusco Duke Alexander and Maria-Jesus Velo).
Prose: dating. Evocations and opinions. Other notes for a poetic , M., Austral,
1998 (ed. Alejandro Duque Amusco)
Complete Poems , M., Visor / Madrid / City of Malaga, 2001 (ed. by Alejandro
Complete Prose , M., Visor / Madrid / City of Malaga, 2002 (ed. by Alejandro
Articles and writings
Meetings (Revista de Occidente, June 1963).
Correspondence to the 27 Generation (1928-1984) .
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