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Michael Faraday

1791-1867

English scientist

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Michael Faraday

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Michael Faraday

 
Engraving by John Cochran after a portrait by Henry William Pickersgill, ca. 1820
Born 22 September 1791
Newington Butts, Surrey, England
Died 25 August 1867 (aged 75)
Hampton Court, Surrey, England
 
Residence England
Nationality British
Fields Physics and Chemistry
Institutions Royal Institution
Known for Faraday's law of induction
Electrochemistry
Faraday effect
Faraday cage
Faraday constant
Faraday cup
Faraday's laws of electrolysis
Faraday paradox
Faraday rotator
Faraday-efficiency effect
Faraday wave
Faraday wheel
Lines of force
Influences Humphry Davy
William Thomas Brande
Notable awards Royal Medal (1835 & 1846)
Copley Medal (1832 & 1838)
Rumford Medal (1846)
Signature

Michael Faraday, FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English chemist and physicist (or natural philosopher, in the terminology of the time) who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.

Faraday studied the magneticfield around a conductor carrying a DC electric current, and established the basis for the electromagnetic field concept in physics. He discovered electromagnetic induction,diamagnetism, and laws of electrolysis. He established that magnetism could affect rays oflight and that there was an underlying relationship between the two phenomena.[1][2] His inventions of electromagnetic rotary devices formed the foundation of electric motor technology, and it was largely due to his efforts that electricity became viable for use in technology.

As a chemist, Michael Faraday discovered benzene, investigated the clathrate hydrate of chlorine, invented an early form of the Bunsen burner and the system of oxidation numbers, and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion.

Although Faraday received little formal education and knew little of higher mathematics, such as calculus, he was one of the most influential scientists in history. Some historians[3] of science refer to him as the best experimentalist in the history of science.[4] The SI unit of capacitance, the farad, is named after him, as is the Faraday constant, the charge on a mole of electrons (about 96,485 coulombs). Faraday's law of induction states that a magnetic field changing in time creates a proportional electromotive force.

Faraday was the first and foremost Fullerian Professor of Chemistry at the Royal Institution of Great Britain, a position to which he was appointed for life.

Albert Einstein kept a photograph of Faraday on his study wall alongside pictures of Isaac Newton and James Clerk Maxwell.[5]

Faraday was highly religious; he was a member of the Sandemanian Church, a Christian sect founded in 1730 which demanded total faith and commitment. Biographers have noted that "a strong sense of the unity of God and nature pervaded 


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