Alexeyevich Bunin ( Иван Алексеевич Бунин ) ( Voronezh , 22 October 1870 - Paris
, 8 November 1953 ) was a writer Russian , who won the Nobel Prize for
Literature in 1933 .
He was born in Russia to parents from both southern Russian families of noble
birth, who could boast not only brave soldiers, also a poet, Anna Bunina ( one
thousand seven hundred and seventy-four - 1,829 ) and the natural father of the
Romantic poet Vasily Andreyevich Zhukovsky ( 1783 - 1852 ).
He spent childhood melancholy. Up to eleven years he was educated in the country
estate. In 1881 he entered the school district Elec that leave prematurely
because of financial difficulties of the family. He returned to the family
estate of Ozerki , continuing his studies under the direction of his elder
brother Yuli. These began with the reading of the classics of Russian
literature: Pushkin , Gogol ' , Lermontov . Aristocratic spirit of the poet,
however, did not share the same passion of his brother for more radical ideas.
He began to compose verse seventeen: a literary magazine of St. Petersburg had
published his first poem.
In the absence of means of subsistence, after a brief period of past work in
Kharkiv with his brother, in 1889 he went to work as a proofreader and then
editor and theater critic for the newspaper Orlovskij Vestnik ("The Messenger of
Orel"). It was here that he met Varvara Paščenko, collaborator of the newspaper,
with whom he had a painful relationship, which ended with the marriage of the
young woman with a mutual friend, Arseny Bibikov. In 1898 he married Anna Cakni,
the daughter of a revolutionary greek: to her will separate after just two
years. In 1900 part of his novel The Antonov apples . Poet friend Maxim Gorky
dedication in 1901 the poem Listopad ("The fall of the leaves"): for it will be
awarded the prestigious Pushkin Prize of ' Russian Academy of Sciences , and in
1909 , the status of honorary member. At the beginning of the twentieth century
it became part of the group Znanie ("Knowledge") whose ideology he remained
In 1903 began a long series of trips that will take him to Constantinople , in
Italy , Palestine , Egypt , Greece , Algeria and Tunisia . In 1906 in Moscow
knows Muromceva Vera , with whom he began a deep relationship and whom she
married in Paris in 1922 . Of 1910 is his first novel Derevnya ("The Village"),
in which a microcosm is portrayed without indulging in any idealism with realism
ruthless writer digs in the soul of the people of Russia Rural Moscow he was
shaken by the appearance the novel.
It was followed by Valsecca ( 1911 ) with the theme of decadence of the '
landed gentry . In the years from 1912 to 1914 he spent his winters in Capri .
In 1915 his complete works were published in six volumes. These will follow the
ladies of San Francisco , which tells of the death of a rich American on the
island of Capri . The pages of a diary ( Cursed Days ) entrusted his thoughts on
the anniversary of the October Revolution . Left Moscow in 1918 to move into
Russia in the middle of southern civil war between red and white. In Odessa
collaborates with the ' White Army , and when it is defeated by the Bolsheviks ,
he leaves for Constantinople .
From Constantinople in 1919 he emigrated to France ( Paris ). The condition of
exile deeply marked his later poetry, which will be more and more turned to
Russia to live in the memories of his nostalgia. To this period belong the
novels Love Mitja ( 1925 ) and The Life of Arsen'ev ( 1930 ) in which they are
strong autobiographical tracks, surrounded by a deep feeling of nostalgia. The
latter was translated by Slavist Hector The Cat ( 1966 ). It dell'alfiere The
deal Elaghin , written in 1925 in the Maritime Alps , reconstructs a famous
crime, the actress Polish Visnovska, at the hands of her lover. The result is a
study of literary psiocologico-love passion.
In 1933 he was awarded - for the first time a writer of Russian nationality -
the Nobel Prize for literature .
He was an opponent of Nazism and, during the occupation, took it upon himself to
host a jew in his house in Grasse . In 1943 was the publication of a book of
short stories Tëmnye ally ("Dark Avenues").
He died in 1953 in her apartment in Paris of a heart attack after a pneumonia
had already weakened from a few years ago. He is buried in the Russian cemetery
of Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois .
Bunin was also a translator of important authors: Henry Wadsworth Longfellow ,
George Gordon Byron , Alfred Tennyson , and Alfred de Musset best ones.
In the fifties - after his death and after the XX Congress of the CPSU - his
works began to be published also in the ' USSR . Since then, even at home is
widely read and appreciated.
The grammar of love , 1915, translated into Italian by Tommaso Landolfi ;
The love of Mitja (Mitina Lyubov '), 1925;
The life of Arsenev (Zhizn 'Arsen'eva): autobiographical novel in 2 vols.
The Well of Days (Istóki Dney), 1930;
Lika (1939) (sequel of the previous year);
Days cursed (Okajannyje dni), 1935 (volume of memoirs);
The liberation of Tolstoy , 1937;
Memories (Vospominanija), 1950;
About Chekhov (not completed) - posthumously, 1955.
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