Virtual Museum of Art | Virtual Museum of History | Virtual Public Library | Virtual Science Center | Virtual Museum of Natural History | Virtual War Museum
   You are in: Museum of History >> Hall of Explorers >> King George III

American’s Four United Republics: Discovery-Based Curriculum

For More Information go to America's Four United Republics Curriculum


King George III

1738 - 1820


King George III  was born in London on June 4, 1738. He was the son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and the grandson of George II. He succeeded his grandfather in 1760, his father having died in 1751. George III was the first of the House of Hanover to be born and educated as an Englishman. He had high but impractical ideas of kingship. George III was the longest reigning of the male British monarchs. George III was king of Great Britain and Ireland and presided over the loss of the American colonies.

Although never an autocratic monarch, George III was always a powerful force in politics. He was a strong supporter of the war against America, and he viewed the concession of independence in 1783 with such detestation that he considered abdicating his throne. At the same time he fought a bitter personal feud with the Whig leader Charles James Fox, and his personal intervention brought the fall of the Fox-North ministry in 1783. He then took a political gamble by placing the government in the hands of William Pitt, thereby restoring stability for the rest of the century. In 1801 he preferred, however, to force Pitt to resign as prime minister rather than permit Catholic Emancipation, a measure that he interpreted as contrary to his coronation oath to uphold the Church of England.  

After 1801 George III was increasingly incapacitated by an illness, sometimes identified as porphyry, that caused blindness and senility. His recurring bouts of insanity became a political problem and ultimately compelled him to submit to the establishment of a formal Regency in1811. The regent was his oldest son, the future George IV, one of 15 children borne him by his wife, Charlotte Sophia of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.

George III was bitterly criticized by Whig historians of his own and later days. He learned quickly, however, and developed into a shrewd and sensible statesman, although one of conservative views. The best loved of the rulers of the House of Hanover, he enjoyed a personal reputation that stood his house in good stead during the disastrous reign of his son George.

George III died at Windsor Castle on January 29, 1820.

Autograph letter signed, dated September 2, 1786 to an unnamed friend. Letter discusses the design of the Theological Pivre Medal, the health of Elizabeth (his daughter), and his friend's horseback riding. Signed "George R."


Text Courtesy of:  History of the Crown, historic royal profiles British Royal Government

George III was born on 4 June 1738 in London, the eldest son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha. He became heir to the throne on the death of his father in 1751, succeeding his grandfather, George II, in 1760. He was the third Hanoverian monarch and the first one to be born in England and to use English as his first language.

George III is widely remembered for two things: losing the American colonies and going mad. This is far from the whole truth. George's direct responsibility for the loss of the colonies is not great. He opposed their bid for independence to the end, but he did not develop the policies (such as the Stamp Act of 1765 and the Townshend duties of 1767 on tea, paper and other products) which led to war in 1775-76 and which had the support of Parliament. These policies were largely due to the financial burdens of garrisoning and administering the vast expansion of territory brought under the British Crown in America, the costs of a series of wars with France and Spain in North America, and the loans given to the East India Company (then responsible for administering India). By the 1770s, and at a time when there was no income tax, the national debt required an annual revenue of £4 million to service it.

The declaration of American independence on 4 July 1776, the end of the war with the surrender by British forces in 1782, and the defeat which the loss of the American colonies represented, could have threatened the Hanoverian throne. However, George's strong defence of what he saw as the national interest and the prospect of long war with revolutionary France made him, if anything, more popular than before.

The American war, its political aftermath and family anxieties placed great strain on George in the 1780s. After serious bouts of illness in 1788-89 and again in 1801, George became permanently deranged in 1810. He was mentally unfit to rule in the last decade of his reign; his eldest son - the later George IV - acted as Prince Regent from 1811. Some medical historians have said that George III's mental instability was caused by a hereditary physical disorder called porphyria.

George's accession in 1760 marked a significant change in royal finances. Since 1697, the monarch had received an annual grant of £700,000 from Parliament as a contribution to the Civil List, i.e. civil government costs (such as judges' and ambassadors' salaries) and the expenses of the Royal Household. In 1760, it was decided that the whole cost of the Civil List should be provided by Parliament in return for the surrender of the hereditary revenues by the King for the duration of his reign. (This arrangement still applies today, although civil government costs are now paid by Parliament, rather than financed directly by the monarch from the Civil List.)

The first 25 years of George's reign were politically controversial for reasons other than the conflict with America. The King was accused by some critics, particularly Whigs (a leading political grouping), of attempting to reassert royal authority in an unconstitutional manner. In fact, George took a conventional view of the constitution and the powers left to the Crown after the conflicts between Crown and Parliament in the 17th century.

Although he was careful not to exceed his powers, George's limited ability and lack of subtlety in dealing with the shifting alliances within the Tory and Whig political groupings in Parliament meant that he found it difficult to bring together ministries which could enjoy the support of the House of Commons. His problem was solved first by the long-lasting ministry of Lord North (1770-82) and then, from 1783, by Pitt the Younger, whose ministry lasted until 1801.

George III was the most attractive of the Hanoverian monarchs. He was a good family man (there were 15 children) and devoted to his wife, Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, for whom he bought the Queen's House (later enlarged to become Buckingham Palace). However, his sons disappointed him and, after his brothers made unsuitable secret marriages, the Royal Marriages Act of 1772 was passed at George's insistence. (Under this Act, the Sovereign must give consent to the marriage of any lineal descendant of George II, with certain exceptions.)

Being extremely conscientious, George read all government papers and sometimes annoyed his ministers by taking such a prominent interest in government and policy. His political influence could be decisive. In 1801, he forced Pitt the Younger to resign when the two men disagreed about whether Roman Catholics should have full civil rights. George III, because of his coronation oath to maintain the rights and privileges of the Church of England, was against the proposed measure.

One of the most cultured of monarchs, George started a new royal collection of books (65,000 of his books were later given to the British Museum, as the nucleus of a national library) and opened his library to scholars. In 1768, George founded and paid the initial costs of the Royal Academy of Arts (now famous for its exhibitions). He was the first king to study science as part of his education (he had his own astronomical observatory), and examples of his collection of scientific instruments can now be seen in the Science Museum.

George III also took a keen interest in agriculture, particularly on the crown estates at Richmond and Windsor, being known as 'Farmer George'. In his last years, physical as well as mental powers deserted him and he became blind. He died at Windsor Castle on 29 January 1820, after a reign of almost 60 years - the second longest in British history.

Research Links

Virtualology is not affiliated with the authors of these links nor responsible for each Link's content.

George III: British Monarchs
... George III (1760-1820 AD) George III was born in 1738, first son of Frederick, Prince
of Wales and Augusta. He married Charlotte of Mecklinburg-Strelitz in 1761 ...

George III
King George III, Click here to visit our sponsor. Teaching
History Online To receive your free copy ...

Welcome to The George III Hotel, Penmaenpool
... The George III is a unique 17th Century family run hotel, situated on the beautiful
Mawddach Estuary. Serving real ale and homecooked food in a fabulous ...

Modern History Sourcebook: Qian Long: Letter to George III ...
Back to Modern History SourceBook. Modern History Sourcebook:
Qian Long: Letter to George III, 1793. ...

The British Monarchy
... had been married for nearly 50 years Royal Collection.
View large picture in new window. George III. ...

King George III And Queen Charlotte. The visitor's
attention is likely to turn next to the ...

An Eighteenth Century Web
The Age of George III. Please note that this site is still under
construction. Do bear with me: I'm working on it - slowly! ...

King George III, by Cristina M. Bain
King George III. by Cristina Marie Bain. This is a biography
about King George III, the longest ...

Chinese Cultural Studies: Emperor Qian Long: Letter to George ...
... Chinese Cultural Studies: Emperor Qian Long: Letter
to George III, 1793. Qian Long ...

H-ALBION Postings (May 1995): madness of George III; porphyria ...
madness of George III; porphyria??? Richard B Gorrie
( Wed ...

George III of Great Britain
George III (far left) pictured with his wife and children
in 1781. George III of Great Britain. ...

William Pitt the Elder, first Earl of Chatham
The Age of George III. William Pitt the Elder, first
Earl of Chatham (1708-78). William Pitt ...

George III, the Prince Regent, and Regency England
Click Here. ... British History. Britain Express > British History > Georgian
Britain > George III. George III and the Regency. ...

King George III-Bulmaro
King George III Report Table of Contents. ... King George III Story. By Bulmaro
Copywrite @ February 20, 1997. Back to Table of Contents. ...

GEORGE III. 24 May 1738 (OS) 4 Jun 1738 (NS) 7:48 AM LAT.
London, England. Source:Chart drawn up in those times. ...

Portrait of George III
George III (1738-1820). King of England. Instrumental in ending Seven Years War
at Peace of Paris, 1763. Strong supporter of policies leading to American ...

King George III
King George III. By Gina A. In actuality his name
was George William Fredrick. He was the king ...

The madness of King George III
This page has moved to:

The King George III Collection - Image Gallery
The King George III Collection. ... Image gallery, Anamorphic
pictures used by Demainbray, Microscope ...

Farnsworth Famazine (George III)
... George Low Farnsworth III, Ornithologist. George and May Summer, Xmas 1999,
Click to see the kid picture again Himself, Vanessa Sorenson. ...

xrefer - George III (1738 - 1820)
... George III (1738 - 1820), King of Great Britain and Ireland (1760-1820),
succeeding his grandfather George II. ...

MEMOIRS OF THE REIGN OF KING GEORGE III The Yale Edition of Horace Walpole`s
Memoirs Horace Walpole Edited by Derek Jarrett ...

George III's Letter on the Loss of America - 1780s
George III's Letter on the Loss of America. George
III (1728-1820). The precise date of ...

{LN}King George III's Responce to The Declaration Of ...
King George III's Responce to The Declaration Of Independence.
The Court of King George ...

George III - A-to-Z History -
... George III (1738-1820) of Britain was king during one of the most critical periods
in the country's history. He succeeded his grandfather George II in 1760 ...

king george iii - books, links and much more
king george iii. ... Other web sites related to king george iii. Add a link to your web
site Couldn't find what you were looking for? Try searching GoTo: ...

World Book || George III
... George III (1738-1820) of the United Kingdom was king during one of the most critical
periods in the country's history. He succeeded his grandfather George II ...

Britain's King George III
Britain's King George III George III (1738-1820),
king of Great Britain and Ireland (1760-1820 ...

The Coronation of His Majesty King George III of Great Britain, Ireland and Hanover. ... Coronation
Portrait of King George III, after the portrait by Allan Ramsay. ...

LARRY E. GEORGE III (LEG). ... My name is: Larry George III. I live
in: Pittsburgh. My Birthday is: July 15, 198? ...

The Madness of George III
The Madness of George III by Alan Bennett. Premiered at the Royal National
Theatre/Lyttelton on 28 November 1991. ... Cast: ... King George III. ...

A Letter Froom King George III
The Court of King George III London, England July 10, 1776. Mr. Thomas Jefferson
c/o The Continental Congress Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ...

CGFA- John Singleton Copley: The Three Youngest Daughters of ...
Advertisement- Click to help keep this site on
the web! Click Here. Home Page.

George III's Proclamation of Rebellion
A Proclamation for Supressing Rebellion and Sedition.
August 23, 1775. Whereas many of our subjects ...

TheVinesNetwork | George III - Summary
... You are here: TheVinesNetwork > TheAmericanHistoryVine> American Revolution>
Personalities > George III(Summary), ... George III, King George III of England. ...

George III -
ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA. George III b. June 4 [May 24, old style],
1738, London d. Jan. 29, 1820, Windsor Castle, near London. ...,5716,37187,00.html - 20k - Cached - Similar pages

Greenwich 2000: George III
George III. ... King George III. 1760 - 1820 King George III. 1760: Succeeded by
his grandson George III (immortalised on movie filmed in Greenwich). ...

King George III
... Monarch of England; George III by Chiefo Chukwudebe, Amy Swanson,
Brenden Seigal, Gregory van Nest; Britain's King George ...

George III, king of Great Britain and Ireland
... George III. ... Introduction; Early Reign; Ministries of North and the Younger Pitt;
England in the Reign of George III; Character and Personal Life; Bibliography. ...

Merriam-Webster/Franklin Spelling Help
... or try again using the Dictionary search box to the right. Suggestions for George
III: 1. Georgia 2. georgics 3. georgic 4. Georgian 5. George's 6. George 7 ...

Start your search on King George III.

America's Four United Republics Exhibit - Click Here

Unauthorized Site: This site and its contents are not affiliated, connected, associated with or authorized by the individual, family, friends, or trademarked entities utilizing any part or the subject's entire name. Any official or affiliated sites that are related to this subject will be hyper linked below upon submission and Evisum, Inc. review.

Research Links

  • Mariner Museum
  • Lewis & Clark National Historic Trail

    Copyright© 2000 by Evisum Inc.TM. All rights reserved.
    Evisum Inc.TM Privacy Policy

  • Search:

    About Us



    Image Use

    Please join us in our mission to incorporate America's Four United Republics discovery-based curriculum into the classroom of every primary and secondary school in the United States of America by July 2, 2026, the nation’s 250th birthday. , the United States of America: We The People Click Here


    Childhood & Family

    Click Here


    Historic Documents

    Articles of Association

    Articles of Confederation 1775

    Articles of Confederation

    Article the First

    Coin Act

    Declaration of Independence

    Declaration of Independence

    Emancipation Proclamation

    Gettysburg Address

    Monroe Doctrine

    Northwest Ordinance

    No Taxation Without Representation

    Thanksgiving Proclamations

    Mayflower Compact

    Treaty of Paris 1763

    Treaty of Paris 1783

    Treaty of Versailles

    United Nations Charter

    United States In Congress Assembled

    US Bill of Rights

    United States Constitution

    US Continental Congress

    US Constitution of 1777

    US Constitution of 1787

    Virginia Declaration of Rights


    Historic Events

    Battle of New Orleans

    Battle of Yorktown

    Cabinet Room

    Civil Rights Movement

    Federalist Papers

    Fort Duquesne

    Fort Necessity

    Fort Pitt

    French and Indian War

    Jumonville Glen

    Manhattan Project

    Stamp Act Congress

    Underground Railroad

    US Hospitality

    US Presidency

    Vietnam War

    War of 1812

    West Virginia Statehood

    Woman Suffrage

    World War I

    World War II


    Is it Real?

    Declaration of

    Digital Authentication
    Click Here


    America’s Four Republics
    The More or Less United States

    Continental Congress
    U.C. Presidents

    Peyton Randolph

    Henry Middleton

    Peyton Randolph

    John Hancock


    Continental Congress
    U.S. Presidents

    John Hancock

    Henry Laurens

    John Jay

    Samuel Huntington


    Constitution of 1777
    U.S. Presidents

    Samuel Huntington

    Samuel Johnston
    Elected but declined the office

    Thomas McKean

    John Hanson

    Elias Boudinot

    Thomas Mifflin

    Richard Henry Lee

    John Hancock
    Chairman David Ramsay]

    Nathaniel Gorham

    Arthur St. Clair

    Cyrus Griffin


    Constitution of 1787
    U.S. Presidents

    George Washington 

    John Adams
    Federalist Party

    Thomas Jefferson
    Republican* Party

    James Madison 
    Republican* Party

    James Monroe
    Republican* Party

    John Quincy Adams
    Republican* Party
    Whig Party

    Andrew Jackson
    Republican* Party
    Democratic Party

    Martin Van Buren
    Democratic Party

    William H. Harrison
    Whig Party

    John Tyler
    Whig Party

    James K. Polk
    Democratic Party

    David Atchison**
    Democratic Party

    Zachary Taylor
    Whig Party

    Millard Fillmore
    Whig Party

    Franklin Pierce
    Democratic Party

    James Buchanan
    Democratic Party

    Abraham Lincoln 
    Republican Party

    Jefferson Davis***
    Democratic Party

    Andrew Johnson
    Republican Party

    Ulysses S. Grant 
    Republican Party

    Rutherford B. Hayes
    Republican Party

    James A. Garfield
    Republican Party

    Chester Arthur 
    Republican Party

    Grover Cleveland
    Democratic Party

    Benjamin Harrison
    Republican Party

    Grover Cleveland 
    Democratic Party

    William McKinley
    Republican Party

    Theodore Roosevelt
    Republican Party

    William H. Taft 
    Republican Party

    Woodrow Wilson
    Democratic Party

    Warren G. Harding 
    Republican Party

    Calvin Coolidge
    Republican Party

    Herbert C. Hoover
    Republican Party

    Franklin D. Roosevelt
    Democratic Party

    Harry S. Truman
    Democratic Party

    Dwight D. Eisenhower
    Republican Party

    John F. Kennedy
    Democratic Party

    Lyndon B. Johnson 
    Democratic Party 

    Richard M. Nixon 
    Republican Party

    Gerald R. Ford 
    Republican Party

    James Earl Carter, Jr. 
    Democratic Party

    Ronald Wilson Reagan 
    Republican Party

    George H. W. Bush
    Republican Party 

    William Jefferson Clinton
    Democratic Party

    George W. Bush 
    Republican Party

    Barack H. Obama
    Democratic Party

    Please Visit

    Forgotten Founders
    Norwich, CT

    Annapolis Continental
    Congress Society

    U.S. Presidency
    & Hospitality

    © Stan Klos





    Virtual Museum of Art | Virtual Museum of History | Virtual Public Library | Virtual Science Center | Virtual Museum of Natural History | Virtual War Museum