Virtual Museum of Art | Virtual Museum of History | Virtual Public Library | Virtual Science Center | Virtual Museum of Natural History | Virtual War Museum
   You are in: Virtual War Museum >> Revolutionary War Hall >> King George III





American’s Four United Republics: Discovery-Based Curriculum

For More Information go to America's Four United Republics Curriculum


 


King George III

1738 - 1820

King George III - A Klos Family Project New Page 2

 

King George III was born in London on June 4, 1738. He was the son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and the grandson of George II. He succeeded his grandfather in 1760, his father having died in 1751. George III was the first of the House of Hanover to be born and educated as an Englishman. He had high but impractical ideas of kingship. George III was the longest reigning of the male British monarchs. George III was king of Great Britain and Ireland and presided over the loss of the American colonies.

Although never an autocratic monarch, George III was always a powerful force in politics. He was a strong supporter of the war against America, and he viewed the concession of independence in 1783 with such detestation that he considered abdicating his throne. At the same time he fought a bitter personal feud with the Whig leader Charles James Fox, and his personal intervention brought the fall of the Fox-North ministry in 1783. He then took a political gamble by placing the government in the hands of William Pitt, thereby restoring stability for the rest of the century. In 1801 he preferred, however, to force Pitt to resign as prime minister rather than permit Catholic Emancipation, a measure that he interpreted as contrary to his coronation oath to uphold the Church of England.

After 1801 George III was increasingly incapacitated by an illness, sometimes identified as porphyry, that caused blindness and senility. His recurring bouts of insanity became a political problem and ultimately compelled him to submit to the establishment of a formal Regency in1811. The regent was his oldest son, the future George IV, one of 15 children borne him by his wife, Charlotte Sophia of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.

George III was bitterly criticized by Whig historians of his own and later days. He learned quickly, however, and developed into a shrewd and sensible statesman, although one of conservative views. The best loved of the rulers of the House of Hanover, he enjoyed a personal reputation that stood his house in good stead during the disastrous reign of his son George.

George III died at Windsor Castle on January 29, 1820.

Autograph letter signed, dated September 2, 1786 to an unnamed friend. Letter discusses the design of the Theological Pivre Medal, the health of Elizabeth (his daughter), and his friend's horseback riding. Signed "George R."






George III was born on 4 June 1738 in London, the eldest son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha. He became heir to the throne on the death of his father in 1751, succeeding his grandfather, George II, in 1760. He was the third Hanoverian monarch and the first one to be born in England and to use English as his first language.

George III is widely remembered for two things: losing the American colonies and going mad. This is far from the whole truth. George's direct responsibility for the loss of the colonies is not great. He opposed their bid for independence to the end, but he did not develop the policies (such as the Stamp Act of 1765 and the Townshend duties of 1767 on tea, paper and other products) which led to war in 1775-76 and which had the support of Parliament. These policies were largely due to the financial burdens of garrisoning and administering the vast expansion of territory brought under the British Crown in America, the costs of a series of wars with France and Spain in North America, and the loans given to the East India Company (then responsible for administering India). By the 1770s, and at a time when there was no income tax, the national debt required an annual revenue of £4 million to service it.

The declaration of American independence on 4 July 1776, the end of the war with the surrender by British forces in 1782, and the defeat which the loss of the American colonies represented, could have threatened the Hanoverian throne. However, George's strong defence of what he saw as the national interest and the prospect of long war with revolutionary France made him, if anything, more popular than before.

The American war, its political aftermath and family anxieties placed great strain on George in the 1780s. After serious bouts of illness in 1788-89 and again in 1801, George became permanently deranged in 1810. He was mentally unfit to rule in the last decade of his reign; his eldest son - the later George IV - acted as Prince Regent from 1811. Some medical historians have said that George III's mental instability was caused by a hereditary physical disorder called porphyria.

George's accession in 1760 marked a significant change in royal finances. Since 1697, the monarch had received an annual grant of £700,000 from Parliament as a contribution to the Civil List, i.e. civil government costs (such as judges' and ambassadors' salaries) and the expenses of the Royal Household. In 1760, it was decided that the whole cost of the Civil List should be provided by Parliament in return for the surrender of the hereditary revenues by the King for the duration of his reign. (This arrangement still applies today, although civil government costs are now paid by Parliament, rather than financed directly by the monarch from the Civil List.)

The first 25 years of George's reign were politically controversial for reasons other than the conflict with America. The King was accused by some critics, particularly Whigs (a leading political grouping), of attempting to reassert royal authority in an unconstitutional manner. In fact, George took a conventional view of the constitution and the powers left to the Crown after the conflicts between Crown and Parliament in the 17th century.

Although he was careful not to exceed his powers, George's limited ability and lack of subtlety in dealing with the shifting alliances within the Tory and Whig political groupings in Parliament meant that he found it difficult to bring together ministries which could enjoy the support of the House of Commons. His problem was solved first by the long-lasting ministry of Lord North (1770-82) and then, from 1783, by Pitt the Younger, whose ministry lasted until 1801.

George III was the most attractive of the Hanoverian monarchs. He was a good family man (there were 15 children) and devoted to his wife, Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, for whom he bought the Queen's House (later enlarged to become Buckingham Palace). However, his sons disappointed him and, after his brothers made unsuitable secret marriages, the Royal Marriages Act of 1772 was passed at George's insistence. (Under this Act, the Sovereign must give consent to the marriage of any lineal descendant of George II, with certain exceptions.)

Being extremely conscientious, George read all government papers and sometimes annoyed his ministers by taking such a prominent interest in government and policy. His political influence could be decisive. In 1801, he forced Pitt the Younger to resign when the two men disagreed about whether Roman Catholics should have full civil rights. George III, because of his coronation oath to maintain the rights and privileges of the Church of England, was against the proposed measure.

One of the most cultured of monarchs, George started a new royal collection of books (65,000 of his books were later given to the British Museum, as the nucleus of a national library) and opened his library to scholars. In 1768, George founded and paid the initial costs of the Royal Academy of Arts (now famous for its exhibitions). He was the first king to study science as part of his education (he had his own astronomical observatory), and examples of his collection of scientific instruments can now be seen in the Science Museum.

George III also took a keen interest in agriculture, particularly on the crown estates at Richmond and Windsor, being known as 'Farmer George'. In his last years, physical as well as mental powers deserted him and he became blind. He died at Windsor Castle on 29 January 1820, after a reign of almost 60 years - the second longest in British history. - Text Courtesy of: History of the Crown, historic royal profiles British Royal Government


This image and text courtesy of Christie's

This image and text courtesy of Christie's
for a complete listing of the
The Forbes Collection Auction - March 27, 2002
CLICK HERE

GEORGE III, King of England. Document signed ("George R," at head and at end), comprising "Orders and Instructions" for Viscount Richard Howe (1726-1799) and Major General William Howe (1729-1814), "Our Commissioners for restoring Peace to our Colonies and Plantations in North America," St. James's Palace [London], 6 May 1776. 16½ pages, folio (14½ x 9½ in.), with large papered wax Great Seal affixed on first page, neatly bound in pale blue silk ribbon, recipients' docket on final blank, enclosed in a quarter brown morocco protective case with the following. IN VERY FINE CONDITION.

[With:] GEORGE III, King of England. Document signed ("George R," at head and at end), comprising "Additional Separate Instructions" for Viscount Richard Howe and Major General William Howe, "Our Commissioners for restoring Peace to our Colonies and Plantations in North America," St. James's Palace [London], 6 May 1776. 4 pages, folio (14½ x 9½ in.), with papered Great Seal on page 1, bound with pink silk braided cord, recipient's docket on final blank.


A MONTH BEFORE THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE, THE KING RE-ASSERTS THE "DEPENDENCE" OF THE COLONIES. GEORGE III'S OFFICIAL PEACE COMMISSION FOR THE HOWE BROTHERS, EMPOWERING THEM TO PARDON "SUCH OF OUR SUBJECTS...AS SHALL DESERVE OUR ROYAL MERCY"

A remarkable pair of documents issued to the brothers Howe, one commanding the Royal Navy, the other the British army in North America, granting them the unprecedented power to issue pardons in the King's name to any American rebels whom they deemed worthy of such mercy and empowering them to declare any town, county or colony which conforms to Royal decree "to be at our Peace." The peace commission had been proposed in 1774 by Lord North, and initially rejected by the King. North, who was about to impose a blockade on all American ports, felt a conciliatory gesture to be advisable. Lord George Germain was strongly opposed to the commission and determined to "handcuff the peace commission with instructions that would ensure its failure" (D. Cook, The Long Fuse, p.248). Admiral Howe, when he was shown the draft commission, even threatened to resign at what he felt to be the impossibly harsh demands it incorporated. The only modifications the King would grant was to make the commission a joint one with Howe's brother and to allow Howe to listen first to American grievances before presenting Britain's demands. "All Howe could do with these instructions was keep them secret--which he did" (ibid., p.248).

The stated purpose of the "Orders and Instructions" is "to restore the public Tranquillity...which ought...to be maintained between our Subjects in the colonies and the Parent State, to induce such a Submission on their part to lawful authority, as shall consist with the just relation and Dependence in which they stand." The Howes are empowered to grant pardons "to such of our subjects who shall appear to deserve it," and who "shall return to their Allegiance"; they are further authorized to declare any Colony or smaller area "to be at Our Peace," and exempt from restraints on trade. Before any colony or province may be so exempted, it must meet certain preliminary conditions. One asserts that "any Provincial Congresses" that have seized unlawful powers must "be dissolved"; any "bodies of men armed...and acting under the authority of any Congress or Convention" must be "disbanded and dispersed, and all Forts...restored to Our possession." Any loyal subject who may have suffered In their persons or property" from the rebellion should receive compensation set by the duly authorized Court." Interestingly, sections 7-9 make a surprising concession, allowing that the contribution of each colony to its own defense shall be fairly apportioned, and that the taxes to raise such contributions may be set by each colony "in its own discretion," although taxes on imports from Britain are specifically exempted. The Howes are explicitly permitted to "confer with persons of authority" on grievances of the colonies which have led "to the weakening of the Constitutional relation" between the colonies and the crown. The Howes are further enjoined to make full reports of all negotiations they enter into. The "Additional & Separate Instructions" relate exclusively to Rhode Island and Connecticut, stipulating that adjustments must be made to their existing charters of government, to make them consistent with that of the other colonies, before any negotiations with their representatives will be allowed to take place.

Admiral Viscount Howe sailed for America on May 11, five days after the present commission was executed, no doubt with these papers in his sea chest. He intended to meet his brother in Halifax. But William had already gone with the main British army to Staten Island, and poor wind conditions slowed the Admiral's flotilla, so that it was not until July 12 that he reached New York. By that time, the Continental Congress had declared independence eight days earlier. Later, in the wake of the American defeat in the Battle of Long Island, Howe intimated a desire to meet with members of Congress. A Committee was duly appointed, comprising Franklin, John Adams and Edward Rutledge, who met with Howe on September 6. The famous meeting has been recounted widely, most recently by David McCullough. After some discussion it became obvious that "Howe had no other authority than to grant pardons should America submit, which, as Franklin told him, meant that he had nothing really to offer." As McCullough observes, "the Declaration of Independence had passed a first test" (John Adams, New York, 2001, p.158).


Research Links

Virtualology is not affiliated with the authors of these links nor responsible for each Link's content.

George III: British Monarchs
... George III (1760-1820 AD) George III was born in 1738, first son of Frederick, Prince
of Wales and Augusta. He married Charlotte of Mecklinburg-Strelitz in 1761 ...

George III
King George III, Click here to visit our sponsor. Teaching
History Online To receive your free copy ...

Welcome to The George III Hotel, Penmaenpool
... The George III is a unique 17th Century family run hotel, situated on the beautiful
Mawddach Estuary. Serving real ale and homecooked food in a fabulous ...

Modern History Sourcebook: Qian Long: Letter to George III ...
Back to Modern History SourceBook. Modern History Sourcebook:
Qian Long: Letter to George III, 1793. ...

The British Monarchy
... had been married for nearly 50 years Royal Collection.
View large picture in new window. George III. ...

KING GEORGE III AND QUEEN CHARLOTTE
King George III And Queen Charlotte. The visitor's
attention is likely to turn next to the ...

An Eighteenth Century Web
The Age of George III. Please note that this site is still under
construction. Do bear with me: I'm working on it - slowly! ...

King George III, by Cristina M. Bain
King George III. by Cristina Marie Bain. This is a biography
about King George III, the longest ...

Chinese Cultural Studies: Emperor Qian Long: Letter to George ...
... Chinese Cultural Studies: Emperor Qian Long: Letter
to George III, 1793. Qian Long ...

H-ALBION Postings (May 1995): madness of George III; porphyria ...
madness of George III; porphyria??? Richard B Gorrie
(rgorrie@uoguelph.ca) Wed ...

George III of Great Britain
George III (far left) pictured with his wife and children
in 1781. George III of Great Britain. ...

William Pitt the Elder, first Earl of Chatham
The Age of George III. William Pitt the Elder, first
Earl of Chatham (1708-78). William Pitt ...

George III, the Prince Regent, and Regency England
Click Here. ... British History. Britain Express > British History > Georgian
Britain > George III. George III and the Regency. ...

King George III-Bulmaro
King George III Report Table of Contents. ... King George III Story. By Bulmaro
Copywrite @ February 20, 1997. Back to Table of Contents. ...

KING GEORGE III
GEORGE III. 24 May 1738 (OS) 4 Jun 1738 (NS) 7:48 AM LAT.
London, England. Source:Chart drawn up in those times. ...

Portrait of George III
George III (1738-1820). King of England. Instrumental in ending Seven Years War
at Peace of Paris, 1763. Strong supporter of policies leading to American ...

King George III
King George III. By Gina A. In actuality his name
was George William Fredrick. He was the king ...

The madness of King George III
This page has moved to: http://www.smurph99.demon.co.uk/george.html

The King George III Collection - Image Gallery
The King George III Collection. ... Image gallery, Anamorphic
pictures used by Demainbray, Microscope ...

Farnsworth Famazine (George III)
... George Low Farnsworth III, Ornithologist. George and May Summer, Xmas 1999,
Click to see the kid picture again Himself, Vanessa Sorenson. ...

xrefer - George III (1738 - 1820)
... George III (1738 - 1820), King of Great Britain and Ireland (1760-1820),
succeeding his grandfather George II. ...

Walpole/MEMOIRS OF THE REIGN OF KING GEORGE III
MEMOIRS OF THE REIGN OF KING GEORGE III The Yale Edition of Horace Walpole`s
Memoirs Horace Walpole Edited by Derek Jarrett ...

George III's Letter on the Loss of America - 1780s
George III's Letter on the Loss of America. George
III (1728-1820). The precise date of ...

{LN}King George III's Responce to The Declaration Of ...
King George III's Responce to The Declaration Of Independence.
The Court of King George ...

George III - A-to-Z History - DiscoverySchool.com
... George III (1738-1820) of Britain was king during one of the most critical periods
in the country's history. He succeeded his grandfather George II in 1760 ...

king george iii - books, links and much more
king george iii. ... Other web sites related to king george iii. Add a link to your web
site Couldn't find what you were looking for? Try searching GoTo: ...

World Book || George III
... George III (1738-1820) of the United Kingdom was king during one of the most critical
periods in the country's history. He succeeded his grandfather George II ...

Britain's King George III
Britain's King George III George III (1738-1820),
king of Great Britain and Ireland (1760-1820 ...

Coronation
The Coronation of His Majesty King George III of Great Britain, Ireland and Hanover. ... Coronation
Portrait of King George III, after the portrait by Allan Ramsay. ...

LARRY E. GEORGE III (LEG)
LARRY E. GEORGE III (LEG). ... My name is: Larry George III. I live
in: Pittsburgh. My Birthday is: July 15, 198? ...

The Madness of George III
The Madness of George III by Alan Bennett. Premiered at the Royal National
Theatre/Lyttelton on 28 November 1991. ... Cast: ... King George III. ...

A Letter Froom King George III
The Court of King George III London, England July 10, 1776. Mr. Thomas Jefferson
c/o The Continental Congress Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ...

CGFA- John Singleton Copley: The Three Youngest Daughters of ...
Advertisement- Click to help keep this site on
the web! Click Here. Home Page.

George III's Proclamation of Rebellion
A Proclamation for Supressing Rebellion and Sedition.
August 23, 1775. Whereas many of our subjects ...

TheVinesNetwork | George III - Summary
... You are here: TheVinesNetwork > TheAmericanHistoryVine> American Revolution>
Personalities > George III(Summary), ... George III, King George III of England. ...

George III - Britannica.com
ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA. George III b. June 4 [May 24, old style],
1738, London d. Jan. 29, 1820, Windsor Castle, near London. ...

Greenwich 2000: George III
George III. ... King George III. 1760 - 1820 King George III. 1760: Succeeded by
his grandson George III (immortalised on movie filmed in Greenwich). ...

King George III
... Monarch of England; George III by Chiefo Chukwudebe, Amy Swanson,
Brenden Seigal, Gregory van Nest; Britain's King George ...

George III, king of Great Britain and Ireland
... George III. ... Introduction; Early Reign; Ministries of North and the Younger Pitt;
England in the Reign of George III; Character and Personal Life; Bibliography. ...

Merriam-Webster/Franklin Spelling Help
... or try again using the Dictionary search box to the right. Suggestions for George
III: 1. Georgia 2. georgics 3. georgic 4. Georgian 5. George's 6. George 7 ...

We invite you to read a transcription of the complete text of the Declaration as presented by the National Archives.

&

The article "The Declaration of Independence: A History , " which provides a detailed account of the Declaration, from its drafting through its preservation today at the National Archives.


Start your search on King George III.


America's Four United Republics Exhibit - Click Here


Unauthorized Site: This site and its contents are not affiliated, connected, associated with or authorized by the individual, family, friends, or trademarked entities utilizing any part or the subject's entire name. Any official or affiliated sites that are related to this subject will be hyper linked below upon submission and Evisum, Inc. review.

Copyright© 2000 by Evisum Inc.TM. All rights reserved.
Evisum Inc.TM Privacy Policy

Search:

About Us

 

 

Image Use

Please join us in our mission to incorporate America's Four United Republics discovery-based curriculum into the classroom of every primary and secondary school in the United States of America by July 2, 2026, the nation’s 250th birthday. , the United States of America: We The People Click Here

 

Childhood & Family

Click Here

 

Historic Documents

Articles of Association

Articles of Confederation 1775

Articles of Confederation

Article the First

Coin Act

Declaration of Independence

Declaration of Independence

Emancipation Proclamation

Gettysburg Address

Monroe Doctrine

Northwest Ordinance

No Taxation Without Representation

Thanksgiving Proclamations

Mayflower Compact

Treaty of Paris 1763

Treaty of Paris 1783

Treaty of Versailles

United Nations Charter

United States In Congress Assembled

US Bill of Rights

United States Constitution

US Continental Congress

US Constitution of 1777

US Constitution of 1787

Virginia Declaration of Rights

 

Historic Events

Battle of New Orleans

Battle of Yorktown

Cabinet Room

Civil Rights Movement

Federalist Papers

Fort Duquesne

Fort Necessity

Fort Pitt

French and Indian War

Jumonville Glen

Manhattan Project

Stamp Act Congress

Underground Railroad

US Hospitality

US Presidency

Vietnam War

War of 1812

West Virginia Statehood

Woman Suffrage

World War I

World War II

 

Is it Real?



Declaration of
Independence

Digital Authentication
Click Here

 

America’s Four Republics
The More or Less United States

 
Continental Congress
U.C. Presidents

Peyton Randolph

Henry Middleton

Peyton Randolph

John Hancock

  

Continental Congress
U.S. Presidents

John Hancock

Henry Laurens

John Jay

Samuel Huntington

  

Constitution of 1777
U.S. Presidents

Samuel Huntington

Samuel Johnston
Elected but declined the office

Thomas McKean

John Hanson

Elias Boudinot

Thomas Mifflin

Richard Henry Lee

John Hancock
[
Chairman David Ramsay]

Nathaniel Gorham

Arthur St. Clair

Cyrus Griffin

  

Constitution of 1787
U.S. Presidents

George Washington 

John Adams
Federalist Party


Thomas Jefferson
Republican* Party

James Madison 
Republican* Party

James Monroe
Republican* Party

John Quincy Adams
Republican* Party
Whig Party

Andrew Jackson
Republican* Party
Democratic Party


Martin Van Buren
Democratic Party

William H. Harrison
Whig Party

John Tyler
Whig Party

James K. Polk
Democratic Party

David Atchison**
Democratic Party

Zachary Taylor
Whig Party

Millard Fillmore
Whig Party

Franklin Pierce
Democratic Party

James Buchanan
Democratic Party


Abraham Lincoln 
Republican Party

Jefferson Davis***
Democratic Party

Andrew Johnson
Republican Party

Ulysses S. Grant 
Republican Party

Rutherford B. Hayes
Republican Party

James A. Garfield
Republican Party

Chester Arthur 
Republican Party

Grover Cleveland
Democratic Party

Benjamin Harrison
Republican Party

Grover Cleveland 
Democratic Party

William McKinley
Republican Party

Theodore Roosevelt
Republican Party

William H. Taft 
Republican Party

Woodrow Wilson
Democratic Party

Warren G. Harding 
Republican Party

Calvin Coolidge
Republican Party

Herbert C. Hoover
Republican Party

Franklin D. Roosevelt
Democratic Party

Harry S. Truman
Democratic Party

Dwight D. Eisenhower
Republican Party

John F. Kennedy
Democratic Party

Lyndon B. Johnson 
Democratic Party 

Richard M. Nixon 
Republican Party

Gerald R. Ford 
Republican Party

James Earl Carter, Jr. 
Democratic Party

Ronald Wilson Reagan 
Republican Party

George H. W. Bush
Republican Party 

William Jefferson Clinton
Democratic Party

George W. Bush 
Republican Party

Barack H. Obama
Democratic Party

Please Visit

Forgotten Founders
Norwich, CT

Annapolis Continental
Congress Society


U.S. Presidency
& Hospitality

© Stan Klos

 

 

 

 


Virtual Museum of Art | Virtual Museum of History | Virtual Public Library | Virtual Science Center | Virtual Museum of Natural History | Virtual War Museum