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Charles I of England

 
Charles I
King of England, Scotland and Ireland (more...)
Portrait by Antoon van Dyck, 1636
Portrait by Antoon van Dyck, 1636
Reign

27 March 162530 January 1649

Coronation

2 February 1626

Predecessor

James VI and I

Successor

Charles II de jure
Oliver Cromwell, de facto (as leader of the Commonwealth of England)

Consort

Henrietta Maria of France

Issue

Charles II
Mary, Princess Royal
James II and VII
Elizabeth of England
Anne of England
Henry, Duke of Gloucester
Henrietta Anne of England

Titles and styles

HM The King
The Prince of Wales
The Duke of York
The Duke of Albany
The Prince Charles

Royal house

House of Stuart

Father

James I of England

Mother

Anne of Denmark

Born

November 19, 1600(1600-11-19)
Dunfermline, Scotland

Baptised

23 December 1601

1 date of christening =23 December 1602
Dunfermline, Scotland

Died

January 30, 1649 (aged 48)
Whitehall, England

Burial

7 February 1649
Windsor, England

Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from March 27, 1625 until his execution.[1] Charles famously engaged in a struggle for power with the Parliament of England. He was an advocate of the Divine Right of Kings,[2] and many citizens of England feared that he was attempting to gain absolute power. Many of his actions, particularly the levying of taxes without Parliament's consent, caused widespread opposition.[3]

Religious conflicts permeated Charles's reign. He married a Catholic princess, Henrietta Maria of France, over the objections of Parliament and public opinion.[4][5] He further allied himself with controversial religious figures, including the ecclesiastic Richard Montagu and William Laud, whom Charles appointed Archbishop of Canterbury. Many of Charles's subjects felt this brought the Church of England too close to Roman Catholicism. Charles's later attempts to force religious reforms upon Scotland led to the Bishops' Wars that weakened England's government and helped precipitate his downfall.

His last years were marked by the English Civil War, in which he was opposed by the forces of Parliament, which challenged his attempts to augment his own power, and by Puritans, who were hostile to his religious policies and supposed Catholic sympathies. Charles was defeated in the first Civil War (1642 - 1645), after which Parliament expected him to accept demands for a constitutional monarchy. He instead remained defiant by attempting to forge an alliance with Scotland and escaping to the Isle of Wight. This provoked a second Civil War (1648 - 1649) and a second defeat for Charles, who was subsequently captured, tried, convicted, and executed for high treason. The monarchy was then abolished and a republic called the Commonwealth of England, also referred to as the Cromwellian Interregnum, was declared. Charles's son, Charles II, became King after the restoration of the monarchy in 1660.[6]

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