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Brigham Young

1801-1877



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YOUNG, Brigham, president of the Mormon church, born in Whitingham, Vermont, 1 June, 1801; died in Salt Lake City, 29 August, 1877. His father, John, a farmer, served in the Revolutionary war. In 1804 Brigham went with his parents to Sherburne, New York, where, until he was sixteen, he received only eleven days' schooling. He then engaged in business and was a carpenter, joiner, painter, and glazier in Mendon, New York

 

In 1830 he first saw the "Book of Mormon," and a year later he was converted by Samuel H. Smith, the prophet's brother. On 14 April, 1832, he was baptized and began to preach in the vicinity of Mendon. In the autumn of 1832 he went to Kirtland, Ohio, where he became the close friend of Joseph Smith. He was ordained an elder, and in the winter of 1832-'3 was engaged in Canada, preaching, baptizing, and organizing missions. His advancement in the church was rapid, and on 14 February, 1835, he was chosen one of the twelve apostles, becoming their president a year later. Meanwhile much of his time was spent in Kirtland, where he was occupied in working on the Temple and in studying Hebrew, also in travelling, preaching, and making converts.

 

During 1836-'7 an effort was made to depose the prophet Joseph and appoint David Whitmer president of the church. A council was held for this purpose, at which Young made an earnest plea for Smith, and the meeting terminated unpleasantly. On 22 December, 1837, Brigham Young left Kirtland. He purchased land in Far West, Missouri, in 1838, and settled there; but, in pursuance of the order of Governor Lilburn W. Boggs, he and his family left their home and much of their personal property on 14 February, 1839, and returned to Quincy, Illinois

 

Later he was one of the twelve that founded Nauvoo, and in September of that year set out on a mission to England. His experience there is given in his own words:" We landed in the spring of 1840 as strangers in a strange land and penniless, but through the mercy of God we have printed ... 5,000 ‘Books of Mormon,’ 3,000 hymn-books, 2,500 volumes of the 'Millennial Star,' and 50,000 tracts .... emigrated to Zion 1,000 souls, yet we have lacked nothing to eat, drink, or wear."

 

The death of Joseph and Hyrum Smith in Carthage jail was announced to him by letter while he was on a mission in Peterborough, New Hampshire, and he returned to Nauvoo on 6 August. Sidney Rigdon was then claiming leadership in the church, but two days later Young was chosen successor to Smith.

 

In the autumn the people of Hancock and adjacent counties clamored for the removal of the Mormons from the state. In reply to such a demand, Young said, on 1 October, 1845, that it was the intention of from 5,000 to 6,000 persons to leave Nauvoo early in 1846 to seek a home in the wilderness. Subsequently the charter of Nauvoo was revoked, and the Mormons suffered house-burnings, plundering, whippings, murders, and the fury of mob violence. In pursuance of his promise, many of the Mormons crossed Mississippi river early in February, 1846, and on the 15th of that month President Young and his family set out. On 1 March, while there were still several inches of snow on the ground, the exodus began with about 400 wagons in line. Brigham Young was chosen president in "Camp of Israel " on 27 March, and captains of hundreds, of fifties, and of tens were appointed to conduct the march.

 

By command of Colonel Stephen W. Kearny, a call was made on President Young, on 26 June, 1846, to furnish 500 men for one year's service during the Mexican war. "You shall have your battalion at once," he replied, and the quota of what was known as "the Mormon battalion" was filled within three days.

 

On their arrival near what is now Florence, Nebraska, on 21 July, the Omaha and Pottawattamie Indians received them kindly, and urged the fugitives to establish a camp in their midst. President Young accepted this offer, after obtaining the consent of President Polk, and made his winter-quarters there. They laid the settlement out in streets and blocks, on which comfortable log-houses were built and a grist-mill was erected.

 

On 7 April, 1847, Young, with 142 men, set out in search of a suitable place for a settlement. They entered Salt Lake valley on 24 July, 1847, and, after a survey had been made of the locality and the first house erected, Young returned to winter-quarters on 31 October, 1847, and on 5 December was elected president by the "twelve apostles," with Heber C. Kimball and Willard Richards as counsellors.

 

On 26 May, 1848, he set out again, accompanied by his family and 2,000 followers, for Salt Lake City, and arrived there on 20 September A provisional government being requisite until congress should otherwise provide, he was elected on 12 March, 1849, governor of "Deseret," which is understood by the Mormons to signify "the land of the honeybee."

 

The territory of Utah was established on 9 September, 1850, and on 3 February, 1851, Young took the oath of office as its governor, commander-in-chief of the militia, and superintendent of Indian affairs, to which places he had been appointed by President Fillmore. Under his administration extensive tracts of land were brought under cultivation and large numbers of converts were brought from Europe.

 

On 29 August, 1852, the doctrine of polygamy was first announced as a tenet of the Mormon church by Brigham Young. He claimed that a revelation commanding it had been made to Joseph Smith: but the widow and four sons of Smith denied ever having seen or heard of any such revelation. Polygamy is strictly forbidden in the "Book of Mormon," the "Doctrine and Covenants," and all Mormon publications that were issued before Smith's death, and many left the church on this question. Subsequently they formed an independent organization under the leadership of one of the sons of Smith.  To sustain the new dogma, papers and periodicals were established in various parts of the world.

 

Meanwhile the Federal judges were forced by threats of violence to leave Utah, and the laws of the United States were defied and subverted as early as 1850. Colonel Edward Steptoe was sent in 1854 to Utah as governor, with a battalion of soldiers; but he did not deem it, prudent to assume the office, and, after wintering in Salt Lake City, he formally resigned his post and went with his command to California.

 

Most of the civil officers that were commissioned about the same time with Colonel Steptoe arrived in Utah a few months after he had departed, and were harassed and terrified like their predecessors.

 

In February, 1856, a mob of armed Mormons, instigated by sermons from the heads of the church, broke into the court-room of the United States district judge and compelled him to adjourn his court. Soon afterward all the United States officers, with the exception of the Indian agent, were forced to flee from the territory. These and other outrages determined President Buchanan to supersede Brigham Young in the office of governor, and to send to Utah a military force to protect the Federal officers. (See CUMMING, ALFRED, and JOHNSTON, ALBERT SIDNEY.) The affair terminated with the acceptance of a pardon by the Mormons, who on their part promised to submit to the Federal authority.

 

Throughout his life Young encouraged agriculture and manufactures, the opening of roads and the construction of bridges and public edifices, and pursued a conciliatory policy with the Indians. He successfully completed a contract to grade more than 100 miles of the Union Pacific railroad, was the prime mover in the construction of the Utah Central railroad, aided in building the Utah Northern and Utah Western narrow-gauge roads, introduced and fostered co-operation in all branches of business, and extended telegraph-wires to most of the towns of Utah.

 

Young took to himself a large number of wives, most of whom resided in a building that was known as the "Lion house," from a huge lion carved in stone that stands upon the portico. In 1871 he was indicted for polygamy but not convicted. At the time of his death he left seventeen wives, sixteen sons, and twenty-eight daughters, and had been the father of fifty-six children.

 

Besides his office of president of the church, Young was grand archer of the order of Danites, a secret organization within the church, which was one of the chief sources of his absolute power, and whose members, it is claimed, committed many murders and other outrages by his orders. By organizing and directing the trade and industry of the community, he accumulated great wealth. His funeral was celebrated with impressive ceremonies, in which more than 30,000 persons participated.

 

See" The Mormons," by Charles Mackay (London, 1851); "The Mormons, or Latter-Day Saints, in the Valley of the Great Salt Lake," by Lieutenant John W. Gunnison (Philadelphia, 1852); " Utah and the Mormons," by Benjamin G. Ferris (New York, 1856); "Mormonism; its Leaders and Designs," by John Hyde, Jr., formerly a Mormon elder (New York, 1857);" "New America," by William Hepworth Dixon (London, 1867);" "The Rocky Mountain Saints," by Thomas B. H. Stenhouse (New York, 1873); "History of Salt Lake City" (Salt Lake City, 1887); and "Early Days of Mormonism," by James Harrison Kennedy (New York, 1888).

Edited Appletons Encyclopedia by John Looby, Copyright © 2001 VirtualologyTM

 

 

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As head of the Mormon Church and architect of the Mormon colony in Utah, Brigham Young was almost sole author of one of the most important chapters in the history of the American West.

Born in 1801 into a poor Vermont farming family, Brigham Young was the ninth of eleven children. When he was three, his family moved to upstate New York, and at age sixteen, Young left home to start a career as an itinerant carpenter, painter, farmer and general handyman. He married his first wife in 1824, and in 1829 the couple moved to Mendon, New York, some forty miles from Manchester, where Joseph Smith was in the final stages of preparing the Book of Mormon for publication.

Although he had converted to Methodism in 1823, Young was drawn toward Smith's newly formed Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from his first encounter with the Book of Mormon in 1830. Two years later, he was baptized into the Mormon church, and the same year went to Canada as a missionary. In 1833, a recent widower, he led several friends and much of his family to join Joseph Smith and the gathering of Zion in Kirtland, Ohio.

The rest of Young's life was spent in service to the Mormon Church. He went to Missouri in 1834 when hostile gentiles (non-Mormons) threatened the Mormon community there, traveled the eastern states as a missionary, and staunchly supported Joseph Smith when the Kirtland settlement foundered in 1837. The next year he followed Smith to Missouri, and when anti-Mormon mobs drove the community out, helped organize the move to Nauvoo, Illinois. Young carried the Mormon message to England in 1840-41, gaining many converts among the urban working class. By 1841, his devotion had so impressed Joseph Smith that he was made the President of the Quorum of Twelve Apostles, the governing body of the church, second in authority only to Smith himself.

When Joseph Smith was murdered by an anti-Mormon mob in 1844, Brigham Young was on the East Coast gathering converts and raising money for the construction of an enormous temple in Nauvoo. On his return, Young played a critical role in keeping the savagely persecuted church together by organizing the exodus that would take the Mormons westward, first to Winter Quarters, Nebraska, in 1846, and finally on to Utah's Salt lake Valley, where Young and an advance party arrived on July 24, 1847. Here Young hoped the Mormons would at last find the freedom to worship and live as their faith decreed. Late in 1847 his leadership was confirmed when he was named president and prophet of the church, inheriting the authority of Joseph Smith.

Young met the challenge of making a new life in Utah by expanding the role and responsibilities of his church. Through the church he directed political decision-making, economic development, cultural affairs, law enforcement and education. To strengthen the church and its authority within Utah, Young constantly encouraged emigration, offering to finance wagon trains and, for a time, furnishing converts with handcarts so they could make the 1,400 mile trek on foot. Young also sought to broaden the scope of church authority by establishing Mormon colonies throughout Utah and in the neighboring Arizona, Nevada and Idaho territories. Finally, he worked to insulate the church by making its people economically self-sufficient. He encouraged the local manufacture of goods that might otherwise be imported from the east, and he discouraged enterprises, like mining, that might require or invite outside investors.

Within just a few years, Young achieved outstanding success. In 1851, Utah was organized as a territory, and Young appointed its governor and superintendent of Indian Affairs. But as it had in the past, Mormon success raised suspicions and provoked opposition from those outside the faith. Federal officials began to fear that Utah would become a theocracy in which church and state were indistinguishable. And with the announcement in 1852 that plural marriage, or polygamy, was a basic tenet of the church, there began a public outcry that accused Mormons of immorality and of thinking they could live outside the laws of the land. By 1857, these complaints had become so persistent that President James Buchanan, eager to find some way to distract attention from the issue of slavery, finally sent an army into Utah to suppress what the Mormon's critics considered a full-scale rebellion against federal authority.

Buchanan's so-called "Mormon War," however, would be a war in name only, because Brigham Young chose to fight the government by cutting off its troops' supply lines rather than engage them in battle. The conflict did, however, give rise to an incident which still haunts Young's reputation, the September 1857  Mountain Meadows Massacre, in which a party of 120 emigrants, suspected of hostility toward the church, was murdered in southeastern Utah by Paiute Indians and a band of Mormons led by John D. Lee,  who claimed to be acting on orders from Young himself. Despite this atrocity, by 1858 Brigham Young had reached a reconciliation with the federal government, which issued a pardon for alleged Mormon offenses and for a time at least allowed the Saints to practice their religion and build their community without interference.

Over the next decade, Young saw his people flourish. The Mormons' missionary activities continued to be enormously fruitful, and Utah's economy and population bloomed. In 1869, the completion of the transcontinental railroad at Promontory Point, Utah,  posed a challenge to this prosperity by bringing a fresh influx of non-Mormons into the territory, but Young met the challenge by consolidating the Mormons' political and economic power. He created a network of church-financed cooperative stores that effectively shut out competition from non-Mormon merchants, and he encouraged industrial cooperatives that aimed to shut out non-Mormon investors. At the same time he secured passage of women's suffrage in Utah, thereby increasing the number of Mormon voters and diluting the political influence of non-Mormons whom the railroad brought into his domain.

By the decade's end, however, federal officials were resuming their efforts to separate church and state in Utah, and the public was resuming its outcry against the Mormon practice of plural marriage. In 1871, Brigham Young was himself tried under an 1862 law that prohibited polygamy in United States territories, but though he had by this time married more than twenty wives, he was not convicted. Federal officials also sought to prove Young's complicity in the Mountain Meadows Massacre twenty years after the fact by bringing John D. Lee to trial in 1877 , but Lee refused to implicate the Mormon leader. Young responded to this fresh attack by federal prosecutors by tacitly influencing Lee's Mormon jury to vote his acquittal, but when public outrage over this outcome forced a second trial, Young saw he would have to sacrifice Lee for the good of the church and accepted the verdict that finally condemned Lee to death.

Brigham Young died shortly after the Lee trial, on August 29, 1877. For more than a decade after his death, the Mormons would find themselves under relentless attack by a federal government determined to strip away the economic and political powers Young had established for their church, and determined to eradicate the practice of plural marriage, a practice Young had hoped to safeguard by maintaining a sanctuary of isolation between his church and the outside world. Nonetheless, even after the government succeeded in its aims, the Mormon Church and the Mormon community remained a living testimony to the vision and spirit of Brigham Young.  -- Text Courtesy of 1996 THE WEST FILM PROJECT and PBS

Research Links

 

Latter-day Saints Online - History - Who's Who - Brigham ...
... with death and cast into prison. During this period the coming Prophet, Brigham
Young, was industrious and improving the land, and laboring diligently in the ...

Photographs of Charles Savage - Brigham Young
THE PHOTOGRAPHS OF CHARLES R. SAVAGE. PORTRAIT OF BRIGHAM
YOUNG, MORMON PROPHET. This portrait ...

Brigham Young - Prophet, Statesman, Pioneer
Brigham Young Prophet, Statesman, Pioneer. The second president of The Church
of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Unidentified Author (1968). ...

THE TEACHINGS OF BRIGHAM YOUNG
... All that Brigham Young prophesies is true Brother Heber has been prophesying. You
know that I call him my Prophet, and he prophesies for me. And now I prophesy ...

LDSCN - The LDS Daily WOOL Archive© - Brigham Young
... and in addition to this I know by the inspiration of God to me that Brigham Young
was a Prophet of God." Heber J. Grant, Conference Report, October 1898. ...

Priesthood Chapter 47 - President Brigham Young's Witness of ...
... Brigham Young's testimony of the truthfulness of the gospel hinged on his testimony
of Joseph Smith as a prophet of God. He recognized as the truth the ...

Brigham Young
... the Kirtland community became divided over Joseph Smith's leadership, Brigham Young's
strong defense of the Prophet so enraged the critics that Brigham had to ...

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an "outside" governor, Alfred Cumming of Georgia. At the same time, President ...

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Brigham Young (pictured) remained the real power in religious and civic ...

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... the decision of US President James Buchanan in1857 to replace Brigham Young with
an "outside" governor, Alfred Cumming of Georgia. At the same time, President ...

Latter-day Saints Online - History - Who's Who - Brigham ...
... in colonizing and building up a great commonwealth, than was Brigham Young. He served
as the first governor of Utah, from 1851 to 1858, to the satisfaction of ...

Brigham Young - Prophet, Statesman, Pioneer
... Brigham Young served as governor of the state of Deseret, as the pioneers called
the area they settled. When Utah became a territory in 1850, he became its ...

Brigham Young Fought Rising Salt Lake, Too
... By Harold Schindler THE SALT LAKE TRIBUNE. As governor of Utah Territory in the
1850s Brigham Young was prepared for anything from establishing a provisional ...

John Hyde's "Mormonism, Its Leaders" 3: Contents
... OF THE UNITED STATES. Your petitioners would respectfully represent: that Whereas
Governor Brigham Young possesses the entire confidence of the people of this ...

People
... Colonizer, territorial governor, and second President of the Church of Jesus Christ
of Latter-day Saints, Brigham Young was born in Vermont in 1801. He became ...

Gunnison Massacre
... 1851, while Gunnison was writing his book, a controversy arose between Governor Brigham
Young and the other Federal officers appointed by President Fillmore to ...

A Chronology of Federal Legislation on Polygamy
... 1877 August 29, One time Territorial Governor, Brigham Young dies in his home in
SLC, without learning if the unique marriage institution that he had worked so ...

LDS Places to Visit/Brigham Young Nauvoo Home
... Visit the home of Brigham Young, the second President of The Church ... members' movement
West, and first territorial governor of Deseret, later named Utah. ...

1910 article from "New New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia"
... Utah War," or " Buchanan's blunder." Alfred Cummings, who had been appointed governor
to succeed Brigham Young, came with the army. When the Latter-day Saints ...
A Stan Klos Company

YOUNG, Brigham, president of the Mormon church, born in Whitingham, Vermont, 1 June, 1801; died in Salt Lake City, 29 August, 1877. His father, John, a farmer, served in the Revolutionary war. In 1804 Brigham went with his parents to Sherburne, New York, where, until he was sixteen, he received only eleven days' schooling. He then engaged in business and was a carpenter, joiner, painter, and glazier in Mendon, New York

 

In 1830 he first saw the "Book of Mormon," and a year later he was converted by Samuel H. Smith, the prophet's brother. On 14 April, 1832, he was baptized and began to preach in the vicinity of Mendon. In the autumn of 1832 he went to Kirtland, Ohio, where he became the close friend of Joseph Smith. He was ordained an elder, and in the winter of 1832-'3 was engaged in Canada, preaching, baptizing, and organizing missions. His advancement in the church was rapid, and on 14 February, 1835, he was chosen one of the twelve apostles, becoming their president a year later. Meanwhile much of his time was spent in Kirtland, where he was occupied in working on the Temple and in studying Hebrew, also in travelling, preaching, and making converts.

 

During 1836-'7 an effort was made to depose the prophet Joseph and appoint David Whitmer president of the church. A council was held for this purpose, at which Young made an earnest plea for Smith, and the meeting terminated unpleasantly. On 22 December, 1837, Brigham Young left Kirtland. He purchased land in Far West, Missouri, in 1838, and settled there; but, in pursuance of the order of Governor Lilburn W. Boggs, he and his family left their home and much of their personal property on 14 February, 1839, and returned to Quincy, Illinois

 

Later he was one of the twelve that founded Nauvoo, and in September of that year set out on a mission to England. His experience there is given in his own words:" We landed in the spring of 1840 as strangers in a strange land and penniless, but through the mercy of God we have printed ... 5,000 ‘Books of Mormon,’ 3,000 hymn-books, 2,500 volumes of the 'Millennial Star,' and 50,000 tracts .... emigrated to Zion 1,000 souls, yet we have lacked nothing to eat, drink, or wear."

 

The death of Joseph and Hyrum Smith in Carthage jail was announced to him by letter while he was on a mission in Peterborough, New Hampshire, and he returned to Nauvoo on 6 August. Sidney Rigdon was then claiming leadership in the church, but two days later Young was chosen successor to Smith.

 

In the autumn the people of Hancock and adjacent counties clamored for the removal of the Mormons from the state. In reply to such a demand, Young said, on 1 October, 1845, that it was the intention of from 5,000 to 6,000 persons to leave Nauvoo early in 1846 to seek a home in the wilderness. Subsequently the charter of Nauvoo was revoked, and the Mormons suffered house-burnings, plundering, whippings, murders, and the fury of mob violence. In pursuance of his promise, many of the Mormons crossed Mississippi river early in February, 1846, and on the 15th of that month President Young and his family set out. On 1 March, while there were still several inches of snow on the ground, the exodus began with about 400 wagons in line. Brigham Young was chosen president in "Camp of Israel " on 27 March, and captains of hundreds, of fifties, and of tens were appointed to conduct the march.

 

By command of Colonel Stephen W. Kearny, a call was made on President Young, on 26 June, 1846, to furnish 500 men for one year's service during the Mexican war. "You shall have your battalion at once," he replied, and the quota of what was known as "the Mormon battalion" was filled within three days.

 

On their arrival near what is now Florence, Nebraska, on 21 July, the Omaha and Pottawattamie Indians received them kindly, and urged the fugitives to establish a camp in their midst. President Young accepted this offer, after obtaining the consent of President Polk, and made his winter-quarters there. They laid the settlement out in streets and blocks, on which comfortable log-houses were built and a grist-mill was erected.

 

On 7 April, 1847, Young, with 142 men, set out in search of a suitable place for a settlement. They entered Salt Lake valley on 24 July, 1847, and, after a survey had been made of the locality and the first house erected, Young returned to winter-quarters on 31 October, 1847, and on 5 December was elected president by the "twelve apostles," with Heber C. Kimball and Willard Richards as counsellors.

 

On 26 May, 1848, he set out again, accompanied by his family and 2,000 followers, for Salt Lake City, and arrived there on 20 September A provisional government being requisite until congress should otherwise provide, he was elected on 12 March, 1849, governor of "Deseret," which is understood by the Mormons to signify "the land of the honeybee."

 

The territory of Utah was established on 9 September, 1850, and on 3 February, 1851, Young took the oath of office as its governor, commander-in-chief of the militia, and superintendent of Indian affairs, to which places he had been appointed by President Fillmore. Under his administration extensive tracts of land were brought under cultivation and large numbers of converts were brought from Europe.

 

On 29 August, 1852, the doctrine of polygamy was first announced as a tenet of the Mormon church by Brigham Young. He claimed that a revelation commanding it had been made to Joseph Smith: but the widow and four sons of Smith denied ever having seen or heard of any such revelation. Polygamy is strictly forbidden in the "Book of Mormon," the "Doctrine and Covenants," and all Mormon publications that were issued before Smith's death, and many left the church on this question. Subsequently they formed an independent organization under the leadership of one of the sons of Smith.  To sustain the new dogma, papers and periodicals were established in various parts of the world.

 

Meanwhile the Federal judges were forced by threats of violence to leave Utah, and the laws of the United States were defied and subverted as early as 1850. Colonel Edward Steptoe was sent in 1854 to Utah as governor, with a battalion of soldiers; but he did not deem it, prudent to assume the office, and, after wintering in Salt Lake City, he formally resigned his post and went with his command to California.

 

Most of the civil officers that were commissioned about the same time with Colonel Steptoe arrived in Utah a few months after he had departed, and were harassed and terrified like their predecessors.

 

In February, 1856, a mob of armed Mormons, instigated by sermons from the heads of the church, broke into the court-room of the United States district judge and compelled him to adjourn his court. Soon afterward all the United States officers, with the exception of the Indian agent, were forced to flee from the territory. These and other outrages determined President Buchanan to supersede Brigham Young in the office of governor, and to send to Utah a military force to protect the Federal officers. (See CUMMING, ALFRED, and JOHNSTON, ALBERT SIDNEY.) The affair terminated with the acceptance of a pardon by the Mormons, who on their part promised to submit to the Federal authority.

 

Throughout his life Young encouraged agriculture and manufactures, the opening of roads and the construction of bridges and public edifices, and pursued a conciliatory policy with the Indians. He successfully completed a contract to grade more than 100 miles of the Union Pacific railroad, was the prime mover in the construction of the Utah Central railroad, aided in building the Utah Northern and Utah Western narrow-gauge roads, introduced and fostered co-operation in all branches of business, and extended telegraph-wires to most of the towns of Utah.

 

Young took to himself a large number of wives, most of whom resided in a building that was known as the "Lion house," from a huge lion carved in stone that stands upon the portico. In 1871 he was indicted for polygamy but not convicted. At the time of his death he left seventeen wives, sixteen sons, and twenty-eight daughters, and had been the father of fifty-six children.

 

Besides his office of president of the church, Young was grand archer of the order of Danites, a secret organization within the church, which was one of the chief sources of his absolute power, and whose members, it is claimed, committed many murders and other outrages by his orders. By organizing and directing the trade and industry of the community, he accumulated great wealth. His funeral was celebrated with impressive ceremonies, in which more than 30,000 persons participated.

 

See" The Mormons," by Charles Mackay (London, 1851); "The Mormons, or Latter-Day Saints, in the Valley of the Great Salt Lake," by Lieutenant John W. Gunnison (Philadelphia, 1852); " Utah and the Mormons," by Benjamin G. Ferris (New York, 1856); "Mormonism; its Leaders and Designs," by John Hyde, Jr., formerly a Mormon elder (New York, 1857);" "New America," by William Hepworth Dixon (London, 1867);" "The Rocky Mountain Saints," by Thomas B. H. Stenhouse (New York, 1873); "History of Salt Lake City" (Salt Lake City, 1887); and "Early Days of Mormonism," by James Harrison Kennedy (New York, 1888).

Edited Appletons Encyclopedia by John Looby, Copyright © 2001 VirtualologyTM

 


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Franklin Pierce
Democratic Party

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Democratic Party


Abraham Lincoln 
Republican Party

Jefferson Davis***
Democratic Party

Andrew Johnson
Republican Party

Ulysses S. Grant 
Republican Party

Rutherford B. Hayes
Republican Party

James A. Garfield
Republican Party

Chester Arthur 
Republican Party

Grover Cleveland
Democratic Party

Benjamin Harrison
Republican Party

Grover Cleveland 
Democratic Party

William McKinley
Republican Party

Theodore Roosevelt
Republican Party

William H. Taft 
Republican Party

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Democratic Party

Warren G. Harding 
Republican Party

Calvin Coolidge
Republican Party

Herbert C. Hoover
Republican Party

Franklin D. Roosevelt
Democratic Party

Harry S. Truman
Democratic Party

Dwight D. Eisenhower
Republican Party

John F. Kennedy
Democratic Party

Lyndon B. Johnson 
Democratic Party 

Richard M. Nixon 
Republican Party

Gerald R. Ford 
Republican Party

James Earl Carter, Jr. 
Democratic Party

Ronald Wilson Reagan 
Republican Party

George H. W. Bush
Republican Party 

William Jefferson Clinton
Democratic Party

George W. Bush 
Republican Party

Barack H. Obama
Democratic Party

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