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Virginia Apgar

1909 -1974

Virginia Apgar - A Klos Family Project

Known not only as one of Columbia University’s first female M.D.’s (1933), Virginia Apgar went on to specialize in surgery, a male-dominated area of medicine.  Virginia became tired of the chauvinism she experienced during her internship and switched her focus to anesthesiology, a relatively unknown medical field.  In 1949, she was appointed as a full professor of anesthesiology at Columbia, another trailblazing event.  

Her research on newborns and anesthesiology led her in 1949 to developing the Newborn Scoring System, also known as the “Apgar Score”, to evaluate the wellness of babies.   She revised and published it further in 1952.  Up until that time newborns were given a cursory glance, counting fingers and toes, and often, internal defects of the circulatory or respiratory systems were overlooked.  Virginia knew that birth is often the most dangerous time for a person, and devised a method for quickly assessing the overall health of the child.   

In the scoring criteria, two points is the highest score for each of five areas: respiratory effort, reflex irritability, muscle tone, heart rate, and color.  The physician conducts the exam one to five minutes after birth and fifteen minutes after birth in Cesarean sections.  A perfect score of ten is rare, but a score of seven will identify a normal, healthy baby.  A low score will alert doctors about possible problems like hemorrhaging or asphyxia which can be immediately treated.   

The Apgar Scoring Method has become a worldwide criteria for quickly assessing newborn health.  Virginia Apgar went on to work as the Director of the March of Dimes in 1959, which continued her interest in providing care for babies and young children.  At her death in 1974, she will be remembered for her great contributions toward medicine and babies worldwide. 

by Jane Harter

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The Women of The Hall - Virginia Apgar
... Virginia Apgar 1909-1974. Virginia Apgar, brilliant
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Virginia Apgar
... Person's Name: Virginia Apgar Date of Birth: June 7, 1909 Date of Death: August 7,
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Medicine-Worldwide: Virginia Apgar - Chirurgin, Anästhesistin - [ Translate this page ]
... Virginia Apgar. Chirurgin, Anästhesistin. * 1909 (USA) † 1974 (USA). Virginia
Apgar entwickelte das Punktsystem für Neugeborene, den sogenannten Apgar-Index ...

Apgar, Virginia Finding Aid
... Agency History/Biographical note: Virginia Apgar was born in Westfield, New Jersey
on June 7, 1909 to Helen May and Charles Emory Apgar. She entered Mount ...

Mississauga Library System - Sciences Department - Virginia ...
... Virginia Apgar was born on June 7, 1909 in Westfield, New Jersey. After graduating
from high school, she studied science at a college in Massachusetts. She put ...

Apgar, Virginia - A-to-Z Science - DiscoverySchool.com
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Virginia Apgar
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Apgar, Virginia - Britannica.com
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7, 1909, Westfield, NJ, US d. Aug. 7, 1974, New York, NY. ...

Medicine-Related Inventors and Inventions: EnchantedLearning.com
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APGAR Scores and The Newborn
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(1909-1974) who invented the scoring method in 1952. Having assisted at ...

Artikel - APGAR - [ Translate this page ]
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Britannica.com
Britannica Internet Guide. Virginia Apgar, 1909-1974 The National
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The History of Medicine: 1951-1965
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Untitled
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Britannica
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FMF Feminist News : October 17, 1995
... Virginia Apgar (1909-1974) - Invented the Apgar Scale, a life-saving health assessment
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Tuesday Report: 15 August 2000
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VTC Women's Issues Club
... 1832-1888) Marian Anderson (1897 - 1993). Ethel Percy Andrus (1884 - 1967) Maya
Angelou (1928 - ) Susan B. Anthony (1820 - 1906) Virginia Apgar (1909 -1974). ...

The History of Today - June 7
... Gauguin 1848 Gwendolyn Brooks 1917 Beau Brummel 1778 Anna Kournikova 1981 Virginia
Apgar 1909 Dean Martin 1917 Ray Sherer 1919 Randolph Turpin 1928 Dolores ...

Great American Women
... of dedication paved the way for women's right to vote. Virginia Apgar (1909 -1974)
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Untitled
... GIRTON COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE V APGAR PATERA 43.5N 84E NA AM B-13 389 46 PE VIRGINIA
APGAR (1909-1974) AMERICAN DOCTOR V BA'HET PATERA 48.5N 0E AF EG B-11 389 PE ...

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APGAR_MADOM
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Spring/Summer 2000 Issue, Trinity Magazine--Trinity College, ...
... COBOL Grace Hooper (1906-1992) Mathematician. Apgar
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* DOCINFO DOCUMENT *
... 100. évfordulójára. Dtsch. med. Wschr. 1994, 119, 196. (Regõs János dr.) Virginia
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PSYCHOLOGIE-KOMPENDIUM 2/5 (Thomas Knob-Seiten) - [ Translate this page ]
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Women's Birthdays & Milestones
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Gwendolyn Brooks b. 1917-1st Black woman to win Pulitzer in poetry. ...

Legendary Women: Two Professors, Apgar, Benedict, Will Be ...
... Columbia women professors--Virginia Apgar and Ruth Benedict--are to be honored soon
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