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The Medallions of the Constitution of 1777 Presidents and their Forgotten Capitols.

To the best of this author's knowledge no United States Medallions or Currency has been issued honoring the founding Constitution of 1777 Presidents and the ten Capitol buildings of the United States of America.

President Samuel Huntington Proposed Presidential $1.00 Coin with  Independence Hall Medallion

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Samuel Huntington and Independence Hall Medallion

© Stanley L. Klos has a worldwide copyright on the artwork in these Medallions not legal tender. .

Medallion Obverse: Samuel Huntington of Connecticut was elected President of the Continental Congress on September 28, 1779 and by virtue of the ratification of the Articles of Confederation on March 1, 1781 he became President of the United States, in Congress Assembled serving until July 6, 1781. He was born on July 16, 1731 at Scotland, Connecticut, the son of a Puritan farmer. The date of July 16th differs from the official Congressional Biography as during the restoration of the Huntington tomb a 207 year old plaque was discovered with the bodies stating: "His Excellency Samuel Huntington Esq. Governor of the State of Connecticut was born July 16th AD 1731and died January 5th AD 1796 aged 64 years." During Huntington's Presidency the United States experience the military losses of Savanna, Charleston, numerous troop mutinies, Benedict Arnold's betrayal, the burning of Richmond and former Continental Congress President, Henry Middleton taking the King's oath of allegiance in South Carolina. President Huntington, through painstaking diplomacy, encouragement and a firm commitment to independence, successfully persuaded the States to meet their necessary quotas of men, dollars and provisions that allowed Washington and his generals to carry on the war. Samuel Huntington then re-focused on Maryland; the last State to ratify the Constitution of 1777 as France was threatening to withdraw its troops and Navy believing the union was falling apart. This failure to ratify the constitution was a slippery slope that had undermined the Revolutionary War effort for almost four years. Huntington prevailed, the Constitution of 1777 was ratified and seven months later French and American troops would trap General Cornwallis in Yorktown Virginia effectively ending the War. For more information visit www.samuelhuntington.org.


Medallion Reverse: The Pennsylvania State House in Philadelphia was Capitol Building from May 10, 1775 to December 12, 1776 and March 12, 1777 to September 18, 1777 and then again July 2, 1778 to June 21, 1783. The Medallion's reverse celebrates the ratification of the Constitution of 1777 with the words "Perpetual Union Ratified - 1781. By virtue of this ratification, the ever fluid Continental Congress ceased to exist. On March 2nd, 1781 "The United States, in Congress Assembled" was placed at the head of each page of the Official Congressional Journal.. The United States of America, which was conceived on July 2, 1776, proclaimed on the 4th and re-constituted on November 15, 1777 was finally ratified into perpetuity on March 1, 1781 under the Congress of President Samuel Huntington. The elated Minister of France was the first to address Samuel Huntington as “His Excellency the President of the United States, in Congress Assembled”. For more information visit www.articlesofconfederation.com.

President Thomas McKean Proposed Presidential $1.00 Coin with  Carpenters Hall Medallion

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Thomas McKean and Carpenters Hall Medallion

© Stanley L. Klos has a worldwide copyright on the artwork in these Medallions not legal tender. .

Medallion Obverse: Engraving of Thomas McKean of Delaware was elected President of the United States, in Congress Assembled July 10, 1781 serving until November 4, 1781. This signer of the Articles of Association, the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution of 1777 and the Constitution of 1787 was born in New London, Chester County, Pennsylvania on March 19, 1734 and died in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, June 24, 1817. During his term of the U.S. Presidency the Battle of Yorktown was won. As the troops paraded passed Congress and the President in Philadelphia the soldiers saluted the Flag as it passed. President McKean chose not to salute instead placing his open hand on his chest as each of the many flags passed his venue. This gesture is still used today by U.S. civilians when pledging allegiance to the flag. This signor of both Federal Constitutions and the Declaration of Independence referred to the importance of his Presidency when turning down his party’s request to run as Thomas Jefferson’s Vice President under the new 12th Amendment to the second U.S. Constitution. Governor McKean wrote on October 16, 1803 to Pennsylvania Republican Party Founder Alexander J. Dallas: ... President of the United States in Congress Assembled in the year of 1781 (a proud year for Americans) equaled any merit or pretensions of mine and cannot now be increased by the office of Vice President. Upon Pennsylvania ratifying the 12th Amendment to the Constitution of 1787, creating for the first time a Presidential/Vice Presidential ticket, Governor McKean transmitted the state ratification on January 8, 1804 to President Jefferson with a letter stating: Several Gentleman of the Republican Party have wished to use my name as a Candidate for Vice President, but I have absolutely declined it on public and personal considerations, and my reasons seem to have given satisfaction. Former President McKean, although respectful of President Jefferson’s office, saw the Vice Presidency as a post vastly substandard of the office he held in the crucial months of 1781.

Carpenters Hall Medallion


Medallion Reverse: Carpenters Hall, Philadelphia was the first Capitol building of the United Colonies utilizes by the First Continental Congress from September 5, 1774 to October 24, 1774. The Medallion's reverse also celebrates the passage of the Articles of Association on October 20, 1774 that "Medallioned" the term Continental Congress. It was proposed on September 4, 1774, in Philadelphia's City Tavern, that the First Continental Congress convene at the Pennsylvania State House. Key Colonial Delegates, however, thought it best not to gather in an official Government structure and agreed to convene the next day at Carpenters Hall. At the City Tavern there was also much discussion on who would be chosen as the President (Presiding Officer) of the new Congress. Peyton Randolph was unofficially elected with the support Delaware Delegate Thomas McKean. In Carpenters Hall, Delegate McKean voted formally for Randolph and heavily supported Joseph Galloway’s Plan to restore the Colonies to a permanent Union with Great Britain but the measure failed failed six colonies to five in 1774 vote. Conservative Thomas McKean would finally acquiesce and sign the Articles of Association that included radical measures he so earnestly sought to avoid since his involvement with colonial politics dating back to the Stamp Act of 1765.

President John Hanson Proposed Presidential $1 Coin with US Capitol York Court House

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John Hanson and York-Town Court House Medallion

© Stanley L. Klos has a worldwide copyright on the artwork in these Medallions not legal tender. .

Medallion Obverse: John Hanson of Maryland was elected President of the United States, in Congress Assembled November 5, 1781 serving until November 3, 1782. Hanson was born in Charles County, Maryland in 1715 and died in Oxen Hills, Prince George County, Maryland on November 22, 1783. On November 5, 1781 the first Delegates, who were elected by their respective States, assembled under the Constitution of 1777 in Philadelphia. Delegate Hanson, earlier that year, was instrumental in persuading the Maryland Legislature to ratify the Articles of Confederation. President Hanson served one year as U.S. President under the Constitution of 1777 and is often claimed to be the First President of the United States. In addition to the confusion surrounding the existence of a 1777 Federal Constitution there is a large contingent of historians and federal officials who, although agree the Articles of Confederation were a legal constitution, maintain they did not go into effect until November 5, 1781. Officials from Maryland especially support this view as their Delegate John Hanson was elected to the Presidency on that same date. In hundreds of bills and laws the State of Maryland maintains that John Hanson was the first President of the United States. This error is pervasive even finding support in some of our most venerable educational institutions including the Library of Congress and the Smithsonian. This Hanson Legend is incorrectly perpetuated by books, articles, the Library of Congress, the State of Maryland, the Smithsonian Institute in various exhibits and the U.S. Post Office. These claims are without merit as Hanson as the third President actually wrote Thomas McKean a Presidential letter of “official thanks” for serving as the Second President of the United States, in Congress Assembled. - for more information visit www.johnhanson.net.

Medallion Reverse: The York-Town Court House served as the Capitol Building of the Continental Congress from September 30, 1777 to June 27, 1778. The Continental Congress had fled to York in 1777 due to British troops occupying Philadelphia. The Medallion's reverse celebrates the passage of the Articles of Confederation on November 15, 1777 at the York-Town Courthouse. Hanson was neither a Delegate nor President of the Continental Congress in 1777. Hanson was, however, instrumental in persuading the Maryland Legislature to ratify the Articles of Confederation in 1781. He would go on to serve as a President under the ratified Constitution of 1777 in November of 1781 establishing the first consular service, a post office department, a national bank, a uniform system of Medallionage, the Great Seal of the United States as well as signing crucial loans and a treaty with Holland.

President Elias Boudinot Proposed Presidential $1.00 Coin with U.S. Capitol Nassau Hall
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Elias Boudinot and Nassau Hall Medallion

© Stanley L. Klos has a worldwide copyright on the artwork in these Medallions not legal tender.

Medallion Obverse: Elias Boudinot of New Jersey was elected President of the United States, in Congress Assembled on November 4, 1782 serving until November 2, 1783. Boudinot was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on May 2nd 1740 and died in Burlington, New Jersey October 24th, 1821. As President, Boudinot and Congress expended a great deal of time and consideration to ending the war favorably with Great Britain. Former President and now Peace Commissioner John Jay took the lead in Paris by persuading Benjamin Franklin and John Adams to ignore the United States, in Congress Assembled’s resolution instructing France to be included in the peace treaty negotiations. Delegate James Madison, who had voted for the instruction to include France, upon learning of Jay’s strategy, wrote: "In this business Jay has taken the lead, and proceeded to a length of which you can form little idea. Adams has followed with cordiality. Franklin has been dragged into it." Jay’s violation of these instructions displeased a large majority of the United States, in Congress Assembled but President Boudinot, once realizing the outcome, sided with John Jay. On a sizzling June Sunday afternoon several hundred soldiers mutinied and marched from Lancaster to Philadelphia. These men were determined to compel Congress and the Supreme Council of Pennsylvania to meet their demands of back pay, food and desperately needed supplies. Recruits from the barracks in Philadelphia reinforced the mutineers; as they surrounded the Independence Hall. Major General St. Clair and Alexander Hamilton, by order of Congress, met with the mutinous soldiers. They were able to reason with the men enabling President Boudinot and the Congressional members to pass through the files of the jeering and threatening mutineers without being molested. The Emergency Committee chaired by Alexander Hamilton sought the State Executive Council to insure the Government of the United States military protection so Congress could convene the following day. Elias Boudinot, however, received no pledge of protection by the Pennsylvania militia and ordered an adjournment of the United States in Congress Assembled on June 24th to Princeton, New Jersey. This was the last time the Confederation Congress would convene in Pennsylvania. Troubles ensued with money and the military throughout the rest of President Boudinot’s term. On the day preceding the President and Congress dismissing the army, General Washington issued his farewell orders, in the most endearing language. With a great strain on the federal government's treasury Congress managed four months wages towards, on average, four years of back pay due the army. Congressional payment to the troops, though a trifling 10% of the monies due, enabled these brave veterans to peacefully disburse into all 13 states. The term of President Boudinot came to an end a month later after he addressed a rash of postal thefts and executing a final resolution calling on he States to improve their Delegate attendance.

Medallion Reverse: Nassau Hall in Princeton was the United States of America Capitol from June 30, 1783 to November 4, 1783. The federal government convened in Princeton as the President and Delegates were forced to flee Philadelphia in the summer of 1783 due to a mutiny of Continental Army troops. The back of the Medallion honors the Treaty of Paris. On March 12th Elias Boudinot finally received the Preliminary Treaty of Peace which was agreed upon by the commissioners on November 30th, 1782. The Preliminary Articles of Peace between Great Britain and the United States placed the United States in a strong position to exert their independence. The United States negotiated national boundaries which included the fertile and extensive counties on both sides of the Ohio River stretching to the east side of the Mississippi. The boundaries were actually more extensive than the States had claimed when they were colonies. Franklin's positioning in the initial negotiations to include all of Canada won the interior land as a compromise as it had little or no use to Great Britain. This land had upwards of twenty nations of Native Americans. Additionally, the five most eastern nations had long been the friends and allies the colonies. An unlimited right of fishery on the banks of Newfoundland were also won but an expensive price was to be exacted by the British Parliament. Great Britain believed that everything ceded to the United States required an equivalent. These equivalent demands, if accepted, would require the repayment of public and private debt owed by Americans to Britain and the loyalists. The demands Britain exacted out of the Commissioners included the large sums of money owed to British Merchants. The United States and their people were obliged to make land and monetary restitution under the terms of the Treaty. In conformity to the letter and spirit of the preliminary treaty, Congress urged in strong terms the propriety of making restitution to the merchants and British loyalists. Imposing the necessary taxes to fund the repayment of debt to Great Britain was, however, beyond the power of United States, in Congress Assembled. The little foreign money the United States could borrow to satisfy British claims in non-American specie placed a great strain on the National Treasury and the only true means of ever repaying the debt was the public sale of lands bequeathed in the treaty in what would be known as the Northwest Territory.

U.S. Presidency Continued


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