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Samuel Beckett

1906 - 1989

Literature - Nobel Prize 1969

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Samuel Barclay Beckett ( Dublin , 13 April 1906 - Paris , 22 December 1989 ) was a writer , playwright and poet Irish .

Considered one of the most influential writers of the twentieth century , Beckett is undoubtedly the most significant personalities (along with Eugène Ionesco , Arthur Adamov and the first Harold Pinter ) that kind of theatrical and philosophical Martin Esslin defined as " theater of the absurd . " His most famous work is the play Waiting for Godot , and the short film Film of 1965 with Buster Keaton . Author of novels and poems, in 1969 Beckett was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature "for his writing, which - in new forms for the novel and drama - in the abandonment of modern man acquires its height" .

The Beckett were Protestants, members of the Church of Ireland . The family home, Cooldrinagh in Foxrock, a suburb of Dublin , was a large house with a garden and a tennis court built in 1903 by Samuel's father, William, an official in the construction field. The house and garden, together with the surrounding countryside where he often went walking with his father, the nearby racecourse Leopardstown Racecourse , Railway Station Harcourt Street , are all present in his works.

Samuel Beckett was probably born 13 April 1906 , a Friday, in spite of the registers bring back the date to 14 June, while another birth certificate showing May 13. The age of five, Beckett began to attend the local kindergarten, where he began to study music. Later he moved to Earlsford House School in the city center, near Harcourt Street. In 1919 , Beckett attended Portora Royal School in Enniskillen , County Fermanagh , where he was also student Oscar Wilde . Achieved excellent results in the study of French, which master it perfectly into adulthood. Natural athlete, Beckett excelled in cricket as a batsman and bowler. Later, as a player of the University of Dublin , played two matches against Northamptonshire, becoming the only Nobel laureate to appear in Wisden Cricketers' Almanack, the most distinguished book of English cricket.

Beckett studied French, Italian and English at Trinity College Dublin between 1923 and 1927 . In 1926, long travels in France, in 1927 in Italy. He graduated with a Bachelor of Art and received the gold medal for the excellence of its results. After teaching briefly at Campbell College in Belfast , took the post of lecteur d'anglais in the École Normale Supérieure in Paris . Here, thanks to Thomas MacGreevy, a poet and confidant of Beckett, who worked in the city, has the opportunity to know James Joyce . This meeting has a profound influence on the young Beckett, assisting Joyce in various ways, including helping with other friends in the French translation of a few pages of what would become Finnegans wake.

In 1929 , Beckett published his first work, a critical essay entitled Dante ... Bruno. Vico ... Joyce by Joyce added that it would be in the anthology Our Exagmination round his factification for incamination of Work in Progress ( Our analysis around its realization for the spread of Work in Progress ), which also includes collaborations Eugene Jolas , Robert McAlmon and William Carlos Williams , among others, and who would have the task of providing tools and answers to the critics who would have to analyze the exegesis of Finnegans Wake [3] . The close relationship between Beckett, Joyce and his family, however, cools as it rejects the daughter of Joyce, Lucia , who suffered from schizophrenia. Also during this period his first novel, Assumption , is published in the journal Transition , founded by Eugene Jolas.

In 1930 , Beckett returned to Trinity College as a lecturer, but soon he is disappointed by this choice. Expresses his aversion to making a joke Modern Language Society of Dublin , reading a French text of an author of Toulouse named Jean du Chas, founder of a movement called concentrism; Chas and concentrism, however, were pure fiction, having been invented by Beckett to mock pedantry excessive academia.

Beckett resigned from Trinity College at the end of 1931 , ending his brief career as a teacher. Commemorate this turning point in his life composing the poem Gnome , inspired by the reading of Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre of Goethe , and published by the Dublin Magazine in 1934.

Abandoned teaching, Beckett began to travel to Europe. Spend some 'time also in London , where in 1931 public Proust , a critical study of French author Marcel Proust . In June of that year held a violent contrast to her mother, who does not approve of his literary activity. Two years later, following the death of his father, is undergoing treatment for two years with the psychoanalyst at the Tavistock Clinic, Wilfred Bion , who is attending a conference of Carl Gustav Jung , an event which Beckett will remember for many years and that influence his later work, including Watt and Waiting for Godot . In 1932 he wrote his first novel, Dream of Fair to Middling Women , but after many rejections by publishers decided to abandon it, the book will be published in 1993 . Despite the impossibility of getting published the novel, however, this serves as a source for his early poems and his first book of short stories of 1933 , More Pricks than Kicks ( More Pricks Than Kicks ).

Beckett public over the years, including several essays, as Recent Irish Poetry (in the magazine The Bookman , August 1934) and Humanistic Quietism , a review of the poems of his friend Thomas MacGreevy (in the periodical The Dublin Magazine , July-September 1934). These two works focusing on the works of MacGreevy, Brian Coffey, Denis Devlin and Blanaid Salkeld, despite their lack of success at the time, these authors compare favorably with contemporary exponents of Renaissance Celtic and call Ezra Pound , TS Eliot and the French symbolists as their precursors. In describing these poets as "living core of the Irish poetic movement", Beckett draws the line of the canon of Irish poetic modernist.

In 1935 , the year that Beckett successfully published his book of poetry, Echo's Bones and Other Precipitates ( Bones echo ) also works on his novel Murphy . In May of the same year, he wrote to MacGreevy about his research on the film and his desire to go to Moscow to study with Sergei Eisenstein Gerasimov Institute of Cinematography. In mid- 1936 he wrote to Eisenstein and Vsevolod Pudovkin , offering as an apprentice. Not if it does nothing, because the letter was lost due to a period of quarantine to be undergone Eisenstein during the outbreak of smallpox, as well as its concentration in rewriting a script of its production postponed. Beckett meanwhile last Murphy , and, in 1936, he left for an intense trip to Germany, during which fills several notebooks with lists of noteworthy artwork that he saw, and developed his aversion to the Nazi barbarity that was overtaking the country. Returns to Ireland for a short period in 1937 , where he oversees the publication of Murphy ( 1938 ), which translates personally in French the following year. He also has a deep dispute with his mother, which contributed to the decision to move permanently in Paris (where he returned for good after the outbreak of World War II in 1939 , preferring (in his words), "France at war, that ' Ireland in peace. "became known in the cafes of the Left Bank , where he strengthened his friendship with Joyce and found in other artists such as Alberto Giacometti and Marcel Duchamp , with whom he regularly played chess. In December 1937 a brief relationship with Peggy Guggenheim , who nicknamed him "Oblomov" as the protagonist of the novel by Ivan Goncharov .

In Paris, in January 1938 , refusing the advances of a notorious pimp, known ironically as the "Prudent", Beckett was stabbed in the chest, risking their lives. James Joyce arranged a private room at the hospital for the injured Beckett. The publicity around stabbing, attracts the attention of Suzanne Dechevaux-Dumesnil, who knew Beckett of view since his arrival in Paris, at which point the two develop a strong bond that will last a lifetime. The preliminary hearing, Beckett asked his attacker concealed the reason behind the gesture, and Prudent casually replied, " Je ne sais pas, Monsieur. m'excuse Je "(" I do not know, sir. Sorry "). Beckett eventually drop the charges against the assailant, in part to avoid further formalities, but also because it is in Prudent a nice person and good manners.

World War II

Beckett joined the French Resistance after the German occupation in 1940 , working as a courier.

In August 1942 , his unit was betrayed and he and Suzanne fled south to safety in the small village of Roussillon , in the department of Vaucluse in the region Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur . Continues to provide support to the Resistance hiding weapons in the back of his house. During the two years spent in Roussillon indirectly helps the Maquis sabotage the German army in the mountains of Vaucluse, despite rarely spoke of his contribution during the war.

Beckett was awarded the Croix de guerre and the Medaille de la Résistance by the French government for his efforts in fighting the German occupation. In recent years, Beckett was referring to his work with the French Resistance as "boy scout stuff". A Rousillon continued to work on the novel Watt (begun in 1941 and completed in 1945 but not published until 1953 ).

After the war

In 1945 Beckett returned to Dublin for a brief visit. During this time, he had a revelation in his mother's room, which appeared to him all his future literary journey. This experience was fictionalized in the representation of Krapp's Last Tape . In the work, the revelation of Krapp, perhaps set in the East Pier in Dun Laoghaire (although nothing in the work proves this assumption) occurs during a stormy night. Some critics have identified Beckett with Krapp to the point of assuming that his artistic epiphany had occurred in the same location and in the same time conditions. However, many literary critics osteggiarono the comparison of the experiences of the characters with those of their authors. Throughout the play, Krapp listens to a recording made ​​earlier in his life, at one point the young man feels himself to say " ... clear to me at the dark lasst That i have always struggled to keep under is in reality my most. .. . " Krapp sends fast-forward the tape before the audience can hear the complete revelation. Beckett later revealed to James Knowlson (which brought him back in the biography Damned to hunger ) that the missing words of the tape were "precious ally".

In 1946 , the journal of Jean-Paul Sartre's Les Temps Modernes published the first part of the story Suite (later called The End , or The End ), without realizing that Beckett had only submitted the first half of the story, Simone de Beauvoir refused to publish the second part. Beckett also began to write his fourth novel, Mercier et Camier , which was published in 1970 . The novel is considered somehow the predecessor of his most famous work, Waiting for Godot , written not long after, and was also the first important work of Beckett to be written directly in French, the language of many of his later works including the "trilogy" of novels he would write short: Molloy , Malone Dies and The Unnamable . Despite being native English speakers, Beckett chose French because, as he said, it was easier for him to write "without style".

The theater, film and television

Beckett is famous to the general public mainly for the play Waiting for Godot . In an article, the critic Vivian Mercier wrote that Beckett "has achieved a theoretical impossibility, a play in which nothing happens, but that keeps the audience glued to their seats. Moreover, whereas the second act is a slightly different recovery the first, he has written a play in which nothing happens, twice. " [4] . Like many of his works from 1947 , the representation was first written in French with the title En attendant Godot . Beckett wrote it between October 1948 and January 1949 . Was published in 1952 and its first performance was in 1953 at the "Theatre de Babylone" in Paris where he discussed a controversial outcome. Two years later appeared the English translation prepared by himself. In London he collected in 1955 several negative reviews, as long as the positive reactions from Harold Hobson in the Sunday Times and Kenneth Tynan they brought it back. In the United States it was a flop in Miami and had great success in New York .

The success of Waiting for Godot in Beckett opened his theatrical career. After Waiting for Godot Beckett wrote several plays including Endgame represented in 1957 , Krapp's Last Tape represented in 1958 , Happy Days represented in 1961 , Comedy , represented in 1963 and a series of short texts written between 1962 and 1982 (from Come and go as I am not a catastrophe in What Where ) called by the same Beckett "dramaticules" (successful neologism created with the intent to represent the small size of the word and the action by the effect of "de-dramatize the drama "). Catastrophe was written in 1982 to be represented at the Festival d'Avignon as an act of solidarity with the Czech playwright Vaclav Havel (imprisoned as a dissident because of his political involvement in 1979 )

The activity of Beckett as an author multimedia starts in 1956 when he was commissioned by the BBC Third Programme , the radio play All those who fall . In 1961 he wrote three more scripts for radio (in the order Words and Music , Radio and Cascando) linked by a common feature: the presence of the human voice and music as entities participating actively in the dramatic. But it was in 1964 that Beckett meets Buster Keaton for which will carry out the short film directed by Alan Schneider to be presented at the New York Film Festival in 1965 . Driven by a constant search for new forms of expression, Beckett realized for German television (as a director) five "teleplays" [6] with high impact visual experimentation and for directing the design (Of particular note is Ghost Trio of the 1975 , Quad , the 1981 and Nacht und Traume of 1982 ).

The Nobel

In October 1969 , Beckett, on holiday in Tunisia with Suzanne, was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature . Suzanne, realizing that the reserved Beckett from then on, it was covered with great fame, he turned to recognition as a "catastrophe." Although Beckett did not devote much time to interviews, he met, at times, personally artists, scholars, and admirers who sought him out in the anonymous lobby of Hotel PLM St. Jacques in Paris near his home in Montparnasse.


Suzanne (who in 1961 married secretly in a civil ceremony in England, for reasons relating to French inheritance law), died 17 July 1989 . Suffering from emphysema and possibly of Parkinson's disease , confined to a nursing home, Beckett died on December 22 of the same year. The two were buried together in the cemetery of Montparnasse in Paris and share a simple granite gravestone, according to the wishes of the same Beckett: "without colors, long and gray."

Dramatic works

Eleutheria (1947, but published in 1995)
Waiting for Godot - En attendant Godot - Waiting for Godot (1952), trans. Carlo Fruttero (1968)
Act without words I - Acte sans paroles - Act Without Words I (1956), trans. Carlo Fruttero (1968)
Act without Words II - Acte sans paroles. II - Act Without Words II (1957), trans. Carlo Fruttero (1968)
Endgame - Fin de partie - Endgame (1956), trans. Carlo Fruttero (1968)
Krapp's Last Tape - Krapp's Last Tape - La derniere bands (1958), trans. Carlo Fruttero (1968)
The theater - Fragment de théâtre I - Rough for Theatre I (late 1950, but 1976), trans. Floriana Bossi (1994)
Theatre II - Fragment de théâtre II - Rough for Theatre II (late 1950, but 1977), trans. Floriana Bossi (1994)
The old tune - The Old Tune - The manivelle (1960), trans. Camillo Pennati (1985)
Happy Days - Oh les beaux jours - Happy Days (1961), trans. Carlo Fruttero (1968)
Comedy - Play - Comédie (1963), trans. Carlo Fruttero (1968)
What is strange, via - All Strange Away (1964, first edition 1976), trans. Roberto Mussapi (1989), trans. Gabriele Frasca (2008)
Come and go - Come and go - Va-et-vient (1965), trans. Carlo Fruttero (1968)
Breath - Breath - Souffle (1968), trans. Floriana Bossi (1994)
Not me - Not I - Pas moi (1972), trans. John Francis Lane (1974)
That time - That Time - Cette fois (1975), trans. Carlo Fruttero and Franco Lucentini (1994)
Steps - Footfalls - Pas (1975), trans. Floriana Bossi (1994)
A piece of monologue - A Piece of Monologue - Only (1980), trans. Carlo Fruttero and Franco Lucentini (1994)
Rocking - Rockaby - Berceuse (1981), trans. Carlo Fruttero and Franco Lucentini (1994)
Sudden Ohio - Ohio Impromptu - of Ohio Impromptu (1981), trans. Carlo Fruttero and Franco Lucentini (1994)
Catastrophe - Catastrophe (1982), trans. Camillo Pennati (1985)
What Where - What Where - Quoi où (1983), trans. Camillo Pennati (1985)

All those who fall - All That Fall - Tous ceux here tombient (1957), trans. Carlo Fruttero (1968)
Ash - Embers - Cendres (1959), trans. Carlo Fruttero (1968)
Radio - Esquisse radiophonique - Rough for Radio I (1961), trans: Floriana Bossi (1994)
Radio II - Pochade radiophonique - Rough for Radio II (1961), trans. Floriana Bossi (1994)
Words and Music - Words and Music - Paroles et musique (1961), trans. Carlo Fruttero (1968)
Cascando (1962), trans. Carlo Fruttero (1968)

Of 'Joe - Joe Dis - Hey Joe (1965), trans. Carlo Fruttero (1968)
Trio of spirits - Ghost Trio - Trio du fantôme (1975), trans. Floriana Bossi (1994)
... Clouds ... - ... But the clouds ... - ... This nuages ​​... (1976), trans: Floriana Bossi (1994)
Quad (1981), trans. Camillo Pennati (1985)
Nacht und Träume (1982), trans. Camillo Pennati (1985)

Film (1965), trans. Maria Giovanna Andreolli (1985)

Dream of Fair to Middling Women (1932, but published in 1992)
Murphy (1938), trans. Franco Quadri (1962), trans. Gabriele Frasca (2003)
Watt (1945, but published in 1953), trans. Cristofolini Caesar (1978), trans. Gabriele Frasca (1998)
Mercier and Camier - Mericer et Camier - Mercier and Camier (1946, but published in 1970), trans. Luigi Buffarini (1971)
Molloy (1951), trans. Carpi Piero De 'Resmini (1970), trans. Aldo Tagliaferri (1996)
Malone Dies - meur Malone - Malone Dies (1951), trans. James Falco (1970), trans. Aldo Tagliaferri (1996)
The Unnamable - The Innomable - The Unnamable (1953), trans. James Falco (1970), trans. Aldo Tagliaferri (1996)
How is - Comment c'est - How It Is (1961), trans. Franco Quadri (1965)

First Love - First Love - Premier amour (1946, but published in 1970), tr. Franco Quadri (1972)
Company - Company - Companies (1979), trans. Mussapi Roberto (1981), trans. Gabriele Frasca (2008, In no way yet )
Ill seen ill said - Ill Seen Ill Said - Mal vu mal dit (1981), trans. Renzo Guidieri (1994)
Worstward I (1984), trans. Roberto Mussapi (1986), trans. Gabriele Frasca (2008, Worst of all , in In no way yet )

Odds and Ends (1929)
For Future Reference (1929)
The Possessed (1931)
Hell crane to starling (1931)
Yoke of Liberty (1931)
Return to the vestry (1931)
Casket Pralinen off for a Daughter of a dissipated Mandarin (1931)
Sitting et quiescendo (1932) Extract, Dream of Fair to Middling Women
A Case in a Thousand (1934)
As the Story Was Told (1934), trans. Susanna Bass (on "Hydra", 2, 1990)
More Pricks Than Kicks (1934) - More Pricks than Kicks - Bands et sarabande , trans. Roffeni Alexander (1970)
Dante and the Lobster - Dante and the lobster - Dante et le homard (1932)
Fingal (1934)
Ding-dong (1934)
A wet night - A Wet Night - Rincée nocturne (1934)
Love and Lethe - Love and Lethe - Amour et Lethe (1934)
A walk - Walking Out ​​- Promenade (1934)
What misadventure - What a Misfortune - Those magnets (1934)
The Billet Doux of Emerald - The Emerald's Billet Doux - Le Billet Doux de la Esmeralda (1934)
Yellow - Yellow - Blême (1934)
Leftovers - La Costa - Résidu (1934)
Texts for nothing - Texts for Nothing - Textes pour rien (1954), trans. Carlo Cignetti (1967)
From a work abandoned - From an abandoned work - On a Ouvrage abandonné (1955), trans. Valerio Fantinel (1969), trans. Gianni Hidden (on " The simple ", 6, 1997)
Imagination Dead Imagine - death Imaginez Imagination - Imagination dead imagine (1965), trans. Guido Blacks (1969)
Bing - Ping (1966), trans. Guido Blacks (1969)
Just - Assez - Enough (1967), trans. Guido Blacks (1969)
No - Lessness - Sans (1970), trans. Renato Oliva (1972)
The spopolatore - The dépeupleur - The Lost Ones (1970), trans. Renato Oliva (1972)
The evicted - The expulse - The Expelled (1955), trans. Carlo Cignetti (1967)
The calming - The Calmant - The Calmative (1955), trans. Carlo Cignetti (1967)
The End - The End - The End (1955), trans. Carlo Cignetti (1967)
Finally, and still more failures - For to End Yet Again and Other Fizzles - Pour finish encore et autres foirades (1970), trans. Edda Melon (1978)
The failure - Foirade I - I Fizzles (1972)
Failure II - II Foirade - Fizzles II (1950)
Failure III: In the distance a bird - Foirade III: Au loin a oiseau - Fizzles III: Afar a bird (1975)
Failure IV - IV Foirade - Fizzles IV (1950)
See each (Bankruptcy V) - Foirade V: If voir - Fizzles V (1950)
Failure VI - VI Foirade - Fizzles VI (1950)
Building - Building - Fizzles VII: Still (1974)
Finally yet - Pour finish encore - Fizzles VIII: For to End Yet Again (1975)
Neither the one nor the other - Neither (1976), trans. Gabriele Frasca (2008)

Proust (1931), trans. Carlo Gallon (1978), edited by P. Pagliano (2004)
Three Dialogues (with Georges Duthuit and Jacques Putnam) (1949), trans. Gianni Hidden (on "In the form of words," 1986)
Disjecta (1983), trans. Aldo Tagliaferri (1991)
Dante ... Bruno. Vico .. Joyce (1929)
The concentrism - The concentrisme (1930)
Dream of attractive women or moderately attractive (Extract from Fair to Middling Women of Dream ) (1932)
German Letter of 1937 - Letter to Axel Kaun (1937)
The two needs - The besoins deux (1937)
Schwabenstreich (1934)
Proust to pieces (1934)
Humanistic Quietism (1934)
Recent Irish poetry (1934)
Ex Cathezra
The Dante Papini - Dante Papini's (1934)
The essential and the secondary - The essential and the incidental (1934)
Censorship in the free state of Ireland - Censorship in the Saorstat (1935)
A work of imagination! - An imaginitive work! (1936)
Intercessions by Denis Devlin - Denis Devlin (1938)
MacGreevy on Yeats - McGreevy on Yeats (1945)
The Bewitched (1930)
Of Murphy (letter to Thomas McGreevey of 17 July 1936)
Of Murphy (letter to George Reavey of 13 November 1936)
On the works until 1951 (letter to Jérôme Lindon) (1967)
On Endgame (steps of letters to Alan Schneider) (1958)
On Comedy (letter to George Devine) (1971)
Of Murphy (letter to Sigle Kennedy) (1971)
On Endgame (from German theater program of the Schiller Theater) (1967)
Geer van Velde (Peggy Guggenheim Gallery) (1938)
The painting of van Velde, or the world and pants - La peinture des van Velde ou le monde et le pantalon (1945)
Painters impediment - Peinture de l'empêchement (1948)
Three Dialogues (with Tal Coat, Masson and Bram van Velde) (1949)
Henri Hayden, man-painter - Henri Hayden, homme-painter (1952)
Hayden (Suillerot Gallery, Paris) (1960)
For Avigdor Arikha (1966)
Human desires - Human Wishes (1937)
Poems by Rilke (1934)
Tribute to Jack B. Yeats - Hommage à Jack B. Yeats (1954)


Puttanoroscopo (trans. J. Rodolfo Wilcock , 1971) or Oroscopata (trad. Gabriele Frasca, 1999) - Whoroscope (1930)
Gnome - Gnome (1934), trans. Gabriele Frasca (1999)
Home Olga (1934), trans. Gabriele Frasca (1999)
Echo's Bones and other Precipitates (1935)
Vulture - The vulture
The Enueg
Enueg II
The Sanies
Sanies II
Serena II
Serena III
From tagte eg
Ossi Echo - Echo's Bones
Collected Poems in Inglese (1961)
Cascando (1936)
Saint-Lô (1946)
Dieppe (1937 and 1946)
My way is in the sand flowing (1948)
What would I do without this world faceless incurious (1948)
I would like my love to die - Je voudrais meure que mon amour (1948)
Ooftish (1938), trans. Gabriele Frasca (1999)
Lyrics - Song (1938), trans. Gabriele Frasca (1999)
Poèmes suivi de mirlitonnades , trans. Giovanni Bogliolo (1978)
Viennent Elles (1946)
À elle l'acte calm (1946)
There mâchoires être sans sans dents (1946)
Ascension (1946)
La Mouche (1946)
Musique de l'indifférence (1946)
Bois seul (1946)
Ainsi at beau-on (1946)
Rue de Vaugirard (1946)
Arenes de Lutece (1946)
Jusque dans la cave ciel et G (1946)
Bon bon il est a Country (1955)
Mort de AD (1939)
Lives death but saison seule (1939)
Je suis ce cours de sable here glisse (1948)
Ferais que je-ce monde sans sans sans visage questions (1948)
Hors crâne seul dedans (1976)
Mirlitonnades (1978), also in trans. Gabriele Frasca ( Filastroccate )
Nay Dread (1974)
Something there (1974)
Thither (1974)
Roundelay (1974)
Pss (1974)


Wit has something shocking in fools - The sub here in a moment of esprit et Etonne scandalise (1974)
The trouble with tragedy is the fuss it makes - Le théâtre tragique to the grand moral inconvénient (1975)
Better on yor ass than on your feet - Quand on soutient les moins que les gens sensibles (1975)
Live and clean forget from day to day - Quand on a été tourmenté, bien fatigué (1975)
Ask of all-healing, all-consoling thought - The pensée console Remedie er de tout à tout (1975)
Hope is a knave befools us evermore - L'Esperance n'est qu'un charlatan (1975)
Sleep till death - Vivre est une maladie dont nous sommeil Soulage (1975)
How hollow heart and full - Que the coeur de l'homme est creux et plein d'ordure (1975)
Collected Poems in Inglese and French (1977)
Heard in the Dark (1979)
What is the word - What is the Word - say Comment (1982), trans. Gabriele Frasca (2008, In no way yet ), there is a trad. Nadia Fusini ( In other words ) to "read", 22, 1990, one of R. Baron on "Poetry", March 1991
Past whispers - Stirrings Still - to Barney Rosset (1985), trans. Sergio Cigada (1988), trans. Gabriele Frasca ( tremors stop ) (2008, in In no way yet )


Poems of Eugenio Montale and John Comisso (1930)
Anna Livia Plurabelle of James Joyce (French translation by Beckett and others, 1931)
Le bateau ivre of Arthur Rimbaud (1932)
Negro: an Anthology (edited by Nancy Cunard) (1934)
Seven Poems of Paul Eluard (1936)
Anthology of Mexican Poems (edited by Octavio Paz , 1958)
The Old Tune of Robert Pinget (1963)
Areas of Guillaume Apollinaire (1972)

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