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Ivan Bunin

1933 Nobel Prize

Cursed Days : A Diary of Revolution

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Ivan Alexeyevich Bunin ( Иван Алексеевич Бунин ) ( Voronezh , 22 October 1870 - Paris , 8 November 1953 ) was a writer Russian , who won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1933 .

He was born in Russia to parents from both southern Russian families of noble birth, who could boast not only brave soldiers, also a poet, Anna Bunina ( one thousand seven hundred and seventy-four - 1,829 ) and the natural father of the Romantic poet Vasily Andreyevich Zhukovsky ( 1783 - 1852 ).

He spent childhood melancholy. Up to eleven years he was educated in the country estate. In 1881 he entered the school district Elec that leave prematurely because of financial difficulties of the family. He returned to the family estate of Ozerki , continuing his studies under the direction of his elder brother Yuli. These began with the reading of the classics of Russian literature: Pushkin , Gogol ' , Lermontov . Aristocratic spirit of the poet, however, did not share the same passion of his brother for more radical ideas. He began to compose verse seventeen: a literary magazine of St. Petersburg had published his first poem.

In the absence of means of subsistence, after a brief period of past work in Kharkiv with his brother, in 1889 he went to work as a proofreader and then editor and theater critic for the newspaper Orlovskij Vestnik ("The Messenger of Orel"). It was here that he met Varvara Paščenko, collaborator of the newspaper, with whom he had a painful relationship, which ended with the marriage of the young woman with a mutual friend, Arseny Bibikov. In 1898 he married Anna Cakni, the daughter of a revolutionary greek: to her will separate after just two years. In 1900 part of his novel The Antonov apples . Poet friend Maxim Gorky dedication in 1901 the poem Listopad ("The fall of the leaves"): for it will be awarded the prestigious Pushkin Prize of ' Russian Academy of Sciences , and in 1909 , the status of honorary member. At the beginning of the twentieth century it became part of the group Znanie ("Knowledge") whose ideology he remained basically stranger.

In 1903 began a long series of trips that will take him to Constantinople , in Italy , Palestine , Egypt , Greece , Algeria and Tunisia . In 1906 in Moscow knows Muromceva Vera , with whom he began a deep relationship and whom she married in Paris in 1922 . Of 1910 is his first novel Derevnya ("The Village"), in which a microcosm is portrayed without indulging in any idealism with realism ruthless writer digs in the soul of the people of Russia Rural Moscow he was shaken by the appearance the novel.

It was followed by Valsecca ( ​​1911 ) with the theme of decadence of the ' landed gentry . In the years from 1912 to 1914 he spent his winters in Capri . In 1915 his complete works were published in six volumes. These will follow the ladies of San Francisco , which tells of the death of a rich American on the island of Capri . The pages of a diary ( Cursed Days ) entrusted his thoughts on the anniversary of the October Revolution . Left Moscow in 1918 to move into Russia in the middle of southern civil war between red and white. In Odessa collaborates with the ' White Army , and when it is defeated by the Bolsheviks , he leaves for Constantinople .

From Constantinople in 1919 he emigrated to France ( Paris ). The condition of exile deeply marked his later poetry, which will be more and more turned to Russia to live in the memories of his nostalgia. To this period belong the novels Love Mitja ( 1925 ) and The Life of Arsen'ev ( 1930 ) in which they are strong autobiographical tracks, surrounded by a deep feeling of nostalgia. The latter was translated by Slavist Hector The Cat ( 1966 ). It dell'alfiere The deal Elaghin , written in 1925 in the Maritime Alps , reconstructs a famous crime, the actress Polish Visnovska, at the hands of her lover. The result is a study of literary psiocologico-love passion.

In 1933 he was awarded - for the first time a writer of Russian nationality - the Nobel Prize for literature .

He was an opponent of Nazism and, during the occupation, took it upon himself to host a jew in his house in Grasse . In 1943 was the publication of a book of short stories Tëmnye ally ("Dark Avenues").

He died in 1953 in her apartment in Paris of a heart attack after a pneumonia had already weakened from a few years ago. He is buried in the Russian cemetery of Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois .

Bunin was also a translator of important authors: Henry Wadsworth Longfellow , George Gordon Byron , Alfred Tennyson , and Alfred de Musset best ones.
In the fifties - after his death and after the XX Congress of the CPSU - his works began to be published also in the ' USSR . Since then, even at home is widely read and appreciated.

Other works

The grammar of love , 1915, translated into Italian by Tommaso Landolfi ;
The love of Mitja (Mitina Lyubov '), 1925;
The life of Arsenev (Zhizn 'Arsen'eva): autobiographical novel in 2 vols.
The Well of Days (Istóki Dney), 1930;
Lika (1939) (sequel of the previous year);
Days cursed (Okajannyje dni), 1935 (volume of memoirs);
The liberation of Tolstoy , 1937;
Memories (Vospominanija), 1950;
About Chekhov (not completed) - posthumously, 1955.

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