Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton
and Company, 1887-1889 and 1999. Virtualology.com advises that these 19th Century
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WARD, Frederick Townsend, soldier, born in Salem, Massachusetts, 29 November, 1831; died in Ningpo, China, 21 September, 1862. He was educated at the Salem high-school, became a sailor, served in the French army during the Crimean war, was in business for some time as a ship-broker in New York city, and about 1860, at the period when the Taeping rebels were everywhere successful, landed in Shanghai. Raising a band of various nationalities, he offered to capture a certain city for a fixed price. His first victory was the capture of the walled town of Sungkiang, which was held by 10,000 rebels, for which service he was made a mandarin of the fourth degree. He cleared the country about Shanghai, receiving his pay for each victory, disappeared for a time, returned at the head of three native regiments that he had armed and trained like European soldiers, and routed a greatly superior force, saving the city from capture. The European officers, who had shunned him as an adventurer and an outlaw, now admitted him into their counsels and welcomed his aid in organizing troops and guarding a radius of thirty miles around Shanghai. In the autumn of 1861 he captured Ningpo, an important stronghold. He adopted the Chinese nationality and manners, being called Hwa, married the daughter of an influential native, and was made a mandarin of the highest grade and admiral-general in the service of the emperor. He was mortally wounded while directing an assault on Tsekie. At the time of the "Trent" affair, when war between the United States and England was expected, and the British in China laid plans to seize American shipping and other property, Ward prepared to take possession of war-ships and merchant vessels of Great Britain then in Chinese waters. He was anxious to close up his affairs in China, in order to take part in the civil war, and offered a contribution of $10,000 to the Nat ional cause, but was killed before the answer came from Minister Anson Burlingame. He was succeeded in his command by Major Charles G. Gordon, who gained renown by the subsequent exploits of the "Ever-Victorious Army," which he brought to a high state of discipline, but which Ward had created and first organized. The Chinese paid Ward the honor of burying him in the Confucian cemetery at Ningpo, where they have erected a great mausoleum, besides placing monuments on the scenes of his victories. He had converted his large possessions into money and negotiable securities, which disappeared from his person when he was killed. The English officer who was last with him was suspected of the theft, and in the United States consular court at Shanghai there were protracted proceedings in the Ward estate case.
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